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Full text of "Downtown Gainesville"

OBPT. HBAP 



FL3 
Alach 

G142 
25.1 

1963 
C.2 



ua 







Downtown 

Downtown PAiurovnic 
Downtown GAINESVILLE 

Downtown 



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Prepared 

for 

City of Gainesville 

Gainesville) Florida 



City Commission 

Edwin H. Andrews, M. D. , Mayor 
S. J. Adkins 
Harry C. Edwards 
Byron M. Winn, Jr. 
Howard McKinney 



City Plan Board 

Thomas R. Hanssen, Chairman 
John E. Merrill 
Arthur Lee Campbell 
Allen Y. Delaney, M. D. 
Sheldon J. Plager 



by 






Dennis J. Lehmann Planner II 

Planning Department 

City of Gainesville, Florida 



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DOWNTOWN GAINESVILLE 



for 



The City of Gainesville 



Florida 








March. 1963 



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FOREWORD 



Downtown Gainesville, if it wishes to retain its prosperity, 
must revitalize its economics, order, and aesthetic values to function 
effectively as the heart of business, government, and transportation. 

The central business district has to make itself an area that 
can be easily reached with comfort and convenience in pleasing the 
citizen in every manner. The alternative for the citizen is either to 
go to downtown Gainesville with relative satisfaction or not go at all. 
This price to be paid for the decline of downtown Gaine sville will, 
directly or indirectly, effect every individual in the future. 

The downtown area has come to the threshhold in its history 
of either two directions --decline or renewal. Renewal or redevelop- 
ment means action, and effective action is only achieved when a cross 
section of community leaders and public officials work together with 
citizens' support toward a common goal. 

This report and all information contained herein is to 
"initiate" other essential environments in an informed public with its 
civic leaders, downtown merchants, and landowners in interest, 
pride, and drive for downtown renewal. 



1 



Table of Contents 



Planning and Design Philosophy 



INTRODUCTION 3 

OBJECTIVES 3 

Economics 3 

Order 4 

Aesthetic 4 

DESIGN PROGRAM 5 



Citizen Participation in Downtown Renewal 



INTRODUCTION 9 

WHAT IS CITIZEN PARTICIPATION 10 

THE ENVIRONMENT OF ACTION 12 

ATTITUDES 13 

ORGANIZATION 16 

OBJECTIVES 16 

CONCLUSIONS 20 



Downtown Gainesville Today 23 



A. HISTORIC BASE 25 

HISTORY 26 

BACKGROUND 26 

THE RAILROAD 29 

SECESSION AND THE CIVIL WAR .... 29 

RECONSTRUCTION 30 

THE GROWTH (1880-1900) 34 

EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY 37 

THE CHANGING SCENE (1920-1930) ... 38 

THE DEPRESSION ERA 39 

CIVIC ADJUSTMENT AND GROWTH ... 40 

B. ECONOMIC BASE 43 

BACKGROUND OF ECONOMY 44 

EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME 45 

NUMBER OF INHABITANTS OF 

GAINESVILLE 45 



DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION 46 

POPULATION PROJECTION 46 

THE DOWNTOWN ECONOMY " 47 

THE RETAIL AREA 48 

DOWNTOWN RETAILING 49 

RETAIL SALES 50 

C. GAINESVILLE 51 

AREA CHARACTERISTICS 52 

D. DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS 55 

LAND 57 

SHOPPING CENTERS 58 

LAND USE 59 

LAND USE ANALYSIS 60 

LAND VALUE AND VALUE -RATIO • • 62 

OCCUPANCY 64 

SPACE USE 71 

OCCUPANCY SURVEY 71 

RENTS AND LEASES •. 72 

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 73 

RESIDENTS 73 

BUILDING AGE 74 

FLOOR AREA RATIO 75 

BUILDING CONDITION 76 

VACANCY 78 

TRAVEL TO DOWNTOWN 79 

THROUGH TRAFFIC 79 

TRAFFIC VOLUME 79 

TRIP PURPOSE 81 

TRAVEL TIME 81 

TIME-DISTANCE FACTORS 83 

OFF-STREET PARKING FACILITIES. 84 

CURB PARKING SPACES 85 

PARKING RATES CHARGED 86 



Downtown Gainesville Development Plan 87 



INTRODUCTION 89 

DESIGN OBJECTIVES 89 

CIRCULATION 91 

PROPOSED THOROUGHFARE SYSTEM 93 

STREET PROPOSALS 94 

STREETS 96 

STREET DIRECTIONS 98 



PARKING 100 

INTRODUCTION 100 

DISTRIBUTION 100 

ACCESSIBILITY 101 

WALKING DISTANCES •. . . . loi 

TYPE OF PARKING FACILITY • • • 101 

PARKING POLICY 10 3 

PROPOSALS 104 

MUNICIPAL PARKING LOT 106 

TRANSPORTATION 107 

INTERSTATE BUS TERMINAL • • • • 108 

TRANSIT 109 

THE RAILROAD 110 

LAND USE HI 

LAND USE 112 

ZONING 114 

CIVIC CENTER 117 

CIVIC CENTER 118 

MUNICIPAL BUILDING 119 

MUNICIPAL LIBRARY 120 

COLISEUM AND CIVIC CENTER • • 122 

RETAIL CENTER 123 

INTRODUCTION 124 

DESIGN 125 

THE PEDESTRIAN SHOPPING MALL • 126 

MALL DEVELOPMENT 127 

STORE MODERNIZATION ....... 128 

SUMMARY 128 

DESIGN IN THE CITY 129 

INTRODUCTION 130 

A PATH OF DIRECTION 130 

URBAN DESIGN ELEMENTS 131 



Plan Implementation 133 



INTRODUCTION 135 

IMPLEMENTATION 136 

PUBLIC SUPPORT 137 

PLANNING 137 

DEVELOPMENT 138 

CONCLUSION 139 



Planning and Design 

Philosophy 



r 



INTRODUCTION 



It can safely be said that the most difficult task for the city- 
planner is to obtain genuine acceptance of a set of goals' formulated 
for and by the community. Establishing these goals based on an analy- 
sis and inventory of all conditions for determining a clear direction 
in which we wish to go is the first step. The major difficulty arises 
with the second step when planning goals are expanded into goals which 
the community can and will endorse. Everyone knows that the down- 
town areas of most cities are a mess, but few really care. Insofar as 
success in downtown renewal depends on complete understanding and 
joint effort of business groups and government, planners must some- 
how obtain acceptance by a wide range of people with varying interests. 

The keynote to this challenging problem lies in two basic facts, 
which are gradually being more and more understood by everyone 
concerned. 

First, all legitimate downtown interests directly or indirectly 
reinforce each other. Using the word "legitimate", we are able to 
cancel out many interests and activities that do not belong downtown. 
Stated negatively, the first goal in planning for downtown is this: 

If the function can be more effectively carried on there 
— or does not contribute to its strength, it has no business 
or place downtov/n. 

If the function can be more effectively carried on there 
+ than elsewhere, or if it does not contribute to i t s 
strength, it should be downtown. 

If this rule is applied, those uses that remain include all 
office type uses and some amusements, parking and terminals, whole- 
sale without stock, and all transient as well as a limited amount of 
permanent residential uses. Excluded are autonnobile retailing, 
general food, industrial and naost wholesale uses. This broad list of 
activities gives us a general guide in what to include and exclude in 
downtown planning. 



OBJECTIVES 

I. Economics. 

The highest density of activity develops the highest demand for 
land and creates its highest value- -and this in turn supplies the high- 
est tax yield to the community. A strong and thriving downtown area 



of any city is a major factor supporting the economic status of a com- 
munity. The economic objectives are: 

-to improve retail sales volumes in the downtown area, 
absolutely and relative to the urban area; 

-to stabilize the downtown area' s contribution to total 
city tax revenues; 

-to encourage and strengthen those cultural recrea- 
tional and institutional services which benefit the en- 
tire urban area, but which can only be supported in the 
downtown area or on its periphery. 



II. Order. 

With the downtown area being the most complex part of the 
city, the lack of order would produce nothing more than chaos and 
inefficiency. The physical layout of the downtown area as it exists 
today will produce traffic congestion and inefficiency. It should be 
remembered that order is a fundamental law of the universe. The 
plan seeks: 

-to separate land uses into functional groupings; 

-to add those uses which will make downtown Gaines- 
ville a strong regional center, and to relocate those 
uses presently existing which detract from this role; 

-to maximize the accessibility from all points in its 
region; 

-to separate traffic as much as practically possible 
into its functional parts; 

-to use the existing street system, to its fullest extent 
and 

-to provide adequate long- and short-term parking for 
workers, visitors, and shoppers. 



III. Aesthetic. 

If order is a basic law of the universe, then aesthetic value is 
a basic goal of man. Our perception and conception by senses gives 



a label of approval or disapproval. What we see, hear, and smell 
will either please or displease us. The urge to be pleased is a strong 
motivation to man; however, this is questionable in man's attitude to- 
Vv'ard the city. The advertisement of almost every product inmerchan- 
dising has used this as its basic and fundamental approach. Project- 
ing this approach to specific objectives, they ask: 

-to satisfy a basic human urge for beauty through the 
design of buildings and open spaces and their relation 
to each other; 

-to achieve order and visual identity in the city, where 
there is chaos and sprawl today; 

-to provide a hierarchy of scale, a variety of masses 
and colors, and a contrast of textures and surfaces to 
create a pleasant environment; and 

-to illustrate that good design of and careful attention 
to signs, lighting, paving, street furniture, and land- 
scaping is essential. 

It is obvious that all three categories of the objectives have a 
mutual interaction, and that there are also inherent conflicts. The 
attainment of these goals in an old city--after decades of neglect-- 
is far more difficult than a similar goal for a new city. These goals 
can be attained by the efforts of the citizens of Gainesville and its 
civic leaders in what they want for their city. 



DESIGN PROGRAM 



A design program for the downtown area, based on the con- 
siderations previously mentioned above, is presented. The approach 
used and asumptions made were set forth as follows: 

In a city like Gainesville the desire for the ideal plan 
has to be tempered by the acknowledgment and respect 
of what is there and that cannot be changed for economic 
reasons. It should be pointed out that nowhere with- 
in the downtown area can redevelopment be eliminated 
for historic restoration. This dictates a careful ana- 
lysis of all physical elements and a determination of 
their adequacy. This process of design is based on two 
parallel processes: 



(1) determining the values of how appropriate 
existing facilities will fit into a new design plan; 
and 

(2) what kind of plan would fit into existing facili- 
ties . 

The quantative infornnation received in the analysis phase as 
to present and projected conditions will serve as a guide for the size 
and extent of new facilities. Their general location will depend on 
the circulation pattern as well as logical land use groupings. 

This program of design in a master plan has to be established 
on a similar basis. This process, which is the heart of making a 
master plan, makes it difficult to accomodate group advice. Creative 
ideas do not evolve from groups of people. They spring from individ- 
uals. Putting it another way: "Could the Mona Lisa be painted by a 
committee, or Hamlet written as a conference report?" This does not 
belittle the value of an advisory design group, but asserts that it is 
the exception rather than the rule, for such a group or organization to 
come up with an original contribution. Changes and/or amendments 
should and will in all probability be made during a pre -examination 
review of the plan by various groups. 

After thorough explanation and examination, agreement con- 
cerning the basic skeleton of the plan inust be met. Details and ainen- 
ities will and should be added. These details are no less important, 
especially from the point of view of public acceptance. This review 
in the middle of the design process insures that the plan will be eco- 
nomically justifiable and acceptable to the community. However, it 
is a complete departure from traditional concepts. This is the spirit 
and purpose of this report. The normal procedure is that the public 
is not called in until the "pains of labor" of a project have been left 
behind, and the usual touches of glamor have been added. The suc- 
cess of a major part of this project will depend on how well citizen 
participation works. 

If deviation from the central theme or skeleton of the plan is 
distorted to any great proportion to defeat the function of the plan, it 
would be best to have none at all. If the city and its people who live 
there are kept in nnind for a better downtown, this plan can be 
achieved with their assistance. 



Citizen Participation 

in 
Downtown Renewal 



r 



INTRODUCTION 

In recent years, urban areas have been forced into increas- 
ingly broad and costly action against mounting social, economic, and 
political crises. Every day hundreds of pages shout the- competitive 
advantages of cities, regions, and states, and the struggle to hold and 
attract people and industry is growing in intensity. The problems of 
urban population, employment, traffic, tax revenue, etc. have pro- 
duced books and articles of many imaginative titles with cries of 
alarm and demands for action. Nevertheless, for every city in 
crisis, with large-scale planning and building under way, there is 
another that has barely commenced to organize in its own defense. 

The obvious questions regarding this concern and activity are: 
why is it so necessary, and- -particularly- -why has so much of it 
begun only recently? The questions are important because, until a 
few years ago, very little initiative was directed toward planning the 
growth of most cities, and even less was directed at downtown areas. 
The growth of urban areas has historically been governed by the 
forces of economic competition and "the market", with cultural and 
aesthetic values having had some influence. Government has inter- 
vened largely on the limited problems of zoning, building, housing, 
traffic, and public facilities, that is, in those areas beyond private 
action in which the electorate believed their welfare to be threatened. 

Despite inefficiency, corruption, and poor living conditions, 
America's cities have grown and prospered. More than 60 percent of 
all Americans now live in "standard metropolitan statistical areas", 
and even more are found in "all urban places" as defined by the cen- 
sus. In the past generation the nation's population distribution has 
und'ergone radical changes. It is evident that the population of most 
of our major cities has slowed down greatly or stopped altogether. 
According to the I960 Census, nearly two-thirds of the total popula- 
tion increase in the United States since the 1950's occurred in 
standard metropolitan areas outside the central cities. 

Central business districts have, as a consequence, suffered 
sharp declines, both relative and absolute, in sales volumes, employ- 
ment, and property values; and, in turn, city governments have lost 
large portions of their downtown property tax revenues, although their 
budgets have increased. This outward shift of economic activity and 
population has shown that residential suburbs have been grov/ing much 
more rapidly than the employing "satellite" cities and towns in met- 
ropolitan areas . Retailing and consumer services have been decen- 
tralizing in inuch larger proportions than business services, whole- 
saling, and manufacturing. The metropolitan scene is one of suburb- 
anizing populations, new styles of living, new technologies and busi- 
ness methods, and great changes in the dominant means of transpor- 
tation of people and goods. 



The impact of these losses and the continued threat has forced 
the American city into the planning and redevelopment fields with an 
arsenal of legal, financial, and technical weapons, some of which are 
being used for the first time. Government and segments of the city- 
are working together in more ways than ever before. This citizen 
participation is a major factor of this study. 

Citizen participation takes many forms, but its core is the 
joint, cooperative, or co-ordinated action taken by government AND 
private persons and groups toward the solution of common or related 
problems. Often, all of these relationships will be present in a re- 
newal situation; the differences between them usually represent very 
different forms of organization so that each group, building in its own 
interests, will serve the purposes of the community. 



WHAT IS CITIZEN PARTICIPATION? 

The problenns of downtown have barely begun to receive the 
attention they demand. It is precisely in these areas that new, broad, 
and dynamic forms of cooperative public-private action are required. 
The scope of downtown's needs is so great and the power, skill, and 
money necessary to solve its problems are so enormous that only 
governmental agencies and private business groups working together 
can meet these demands. 

Downtown renewal needs new forms of citizen participation. 
It is important to define and understand the term. A "citizen" is 
every person living, working, owning property, shopping, or using 
the facilities of a community. "Participation" includes every rela- 
tionship to planning and renewal from the educational programs of 
women's clubs to the large-scale investments of national development 
firms. The type of participation needed for a project will differ with 
its objectives and the project itself. It will usually include voting, 
public relations, financial and technical information and service, 
legal advice, legislative and political organizing and lobbying, and 
investment. 

Citizen participation, although it seems at times ineffective 
and short-sighted, is not only vital to successful planning, but is 
basic to the nation's democratic principles. It brings to bear on the 
various problems not only the advice and desires of the participating 
citizens, but also acquaints them with the goals, policies and pro- 
grams of the planners and with their techniques. 



10 



Every type of city planning calls for a special approach, and 
this holds true especially of downtown areas. The downtown core re- 
presents great private investments in a primarily business and com- 
mercial center; decisions affecting it are made almost entirely by 
private persons and groups seeking to maximize income. In downtown 
Gainesville only such minimum governmental activities as traffic 
control, maintenance of public facilities, building inspection, street 
lighting, police and fire protection, and the setting of zoning and 
safety standards, and several off-street parking facilities have been 
carried out. 

All businessmen have a different stake in downtown Gaines- 
ville. Many have moved out of the district, and even out of the city, 
with those remaining in frequent conflict. For example, those who 
own property and those who rent may disagree on what should be up- 
graded and where. The resolution of these differences demands a 
high order of intelligence and leadership from planners, merchants, 
investors, and a great deal of understanding from the "man on the 
street". 




11 



THE ENVIRONMENT OF ACTION 

If there is an identifiable something about a local situation 
that makes it especially favorable to effective action, why is it mis- 
sing from some cities? If it does not exist, how can we account for 
action in one place and none in another? In brief, the question is 
whether or not there are situations in -which renewal action is clear- 
ly predictable, and others in which a safe prediction can be made that 
no action will be taken. 

Clarification should be made of the terms renewal and re- 
development. They are synonymous in reference to "abnormal action" 
which differs in kind and amount from the ordinary economic and po- 
litical processes. The assumption is that if a city is in a "healthy" 
condition, the normal processes of change and planning will prevent 
minor difficulties from reaching the disaster point. Thus, renewal 
is most often understood as the extraordinary action which makes it 
possible for the customary processes to continue. Of course, there 
is something weak or lacking in this common line of reasoning. These 
"custonner" processes are just exactly what allowed the crises to 
develop in the first place. The hope of returning to them after a 
renewal program hardly seems to be anadequate and sound objective. 
The soundest foundation of any city is where renewal is a continuous, 
not an emergency, measure; a process with citizen participation 
being constant and effective. In most instances effective renewal 
involves the cooperation of several organizations in the pursuit of 
objectives which no one of them can achieve acting alone. The first 
characteristic of action to downtown renewal is the presence of 
several powerful and influential groups willing and able to cooperate. 

The role of these groups in any specific project will depend on 
the kinds of legal, economic, and other powerful positions their 
members hold. The importance of cooperative action need hardly be 
elaborated. The coordinated, large-scale planning and investment 
that constitutes action in renewal can almost never be carried out by 
one segment of a city's power structure alone. The results that 
come out of urban redevelopment will be determined by one simple 
relation- -what interests apply the most pressure in the most effective 
places at the most appropriate times. This is our traditional pattern 
by which things get done--it is very simple--the only practical pro- 
blem involved is just who is to apply the pressures in the interests of 
sound planning for the citizens. The basic principle of democracy is 
not reliance on law, elected officials, or private enterprise; it is 
reliance on informed and activated public opinion, the needs and de- 
sires of the people. 



12 



The generalization that the redevelopment climate is most 
favorable in cities needing it least and least favorable in those needing 
it the most should be questioned. On the surface the conclusion seems 
reasonable, especially if "need" is judged on the basis of the whole 
urban area, for some of the most vigorous action takes'place in the 
central cities of exploding urban areas. Actually, however, these 
cities have been registering relative and absolute declines in sales, 
employment, value added by industry, and property values as com- 
pared with their suburban and satelite communities; and it would be 
quite misleading to classify them as places needing redevelopment 
least. It would probably be more accurate to say that the expanding 
regional economy in downtown business and property owners en- 
courages the belief that new investments in the central business dis- 
tricts are likely to be profitable in spite of the evidence of recent de- 
clines. 

The difference between action and inaction is apparently the 
reflection not of current needs and immediate threats in the world 
but of current prospects for the local and regional economies, for it 
must be remembered that the foundation of downtown redevelopment 
is private investment. It is quite obvious, therefore, that one cannot 
predict the likelihood of renewal action from an appraisal of a city's 
needs, and that prediction becomes easier if examination is made of 
urban and regional economies. Nevertheless, there are enough cases 
defying this line of reasoning to make analysis complicated. For ex- 
ample, can an explanation be made for action in a depressed area, 
and the lack of action in a prosperous one? 

Again, the most reasonable answers are insufficient. One is 
forced to retreat from rational economic explanations, and speak of 
"leadership" and "something in the air". It is sound to say that action 
takes place where there is strong, progressive leadership. The econ- 
omy of an area flourishes because it already has such leaders in 
industry, business, and finance, and because its pr osperity attracts 
more, presumably, from distressed areas. This is the rational econ- 
omic explanation, but it disregards such potentially powerful sources 
of action as loyalties and feelings of community responsibility. 



ATTITUDES 

The favorable environment in downtown renewal differs some- 
what from that which is necessary to accomplish superhighways or 
slum clearance, because the need for the latter is apparent to more 
people and public support is more readily achieved. The approach to 
downtown problems is often, confronted with less cause for optimism. 



13 



The role of business and private capital is greater in downtown 
renewal than in any other aspect of urban renewal except, perhaps, 
industrial development. The central business district is vital to 
every resident of the city and the urban area, but it will take many 
years of education before this is realized. 

The "man in the street" is rarely involved in doing anything 
about downtown problems . Generally, the central district contains a 
small and decreasing number of residents, so that even this potential 
source of pressure and interest, one that is sometimes very import- 
ant in decisions about slum clearance and housing, is absent. Thus, 
"citizen participation", the term usually used for any kind of private 
cooperation with government on renewal issues, must be of a special 
kind in downtown planning, and it is often misleading to apply the term 
to the situation of downtown at all. 

It seems that people rarely put time and effort into redevel- 
oping business districts for the same reasons they desire to work for 
better schools or housing. Saving the central business is not under- 
stood as a "human" problem. A substantial segment of community 
leadership takes no interest in it, and in most cases , until recently, 
no one bothered to explain to them why they should. 

Although leaders are as necessary to downtown renewal as to 
other social and economic action, they have been hard to find. The 
problem is accentuated by the fact that most of the pressure and 
organization for downtown action must come from the district itself- - 
from those directly concerned with it. In one case after another, it 
has been shown that those most active in redevelopment work readily 
admit that the year before the KEY event no one could have safely 
predicted the coming change. In this respect there is really no way 
of predicting that any one city is "ready" or "ripe" for redevelopment 
until action has already begun. The situation is ripe for renewal pro- 
jects if most of those in the following list have favorable attitudes: 

- merchants toward economic and population change 
and suburban competition; 

- local and outside investors toward the possible and 
probable future of the downtown district; 

- city residents toward the attractiveness, service, 
and assessibility of downtown; 

- property owners and managers toward the profita- 
bility of remodeling property, as against tearing 
buildings down in favor of parking lots; 



14 



- industrial owners toward downtown facilities as com- 
pared with other parts of the urban area; and 

- municipal government toward downtown renewal. 

The above list is simply enough stated, but there is certainly 
no simple solution to the problem of creating favorable attitudes. 
There are, however, some grounds for hope in the evidence that a 
climate of massive apathy and discouragement is sometimes changed 
in a short time by the action of a few people. 

The following factors have been found to be the basic minimum 
for effective downtown renewal action: 

1. One or several leaders capable of undertaking 
major action themselves, and able to convince 
others to follow their example. These leaders 
are generally in finance, insurance, and 
government. 

2. Powerholders--not necessarily providing the 
top leadership- -who are willing to support the 
plans of the leading group. 

3. General business, civic, and welfare groups 
willing and able to publicize and support the 
plans of planners and top-level leadership. 

4. An elector_ate with confidence in top renewal 
leadership to support candidates and improve- 
ment programs. 

5. A planning agency with enough backing and pro- 
fessional staff of the municipal government to 
carry out at least land use , space use, and 
other fact-finding and design work. 



Of the above environments favorable to downtown renewal, the 
last item, number five, has been the first environment to downtown 
renewal for Gainesville. THE PURPOSE OF THIS RE- 
PORT IS TO INITIATE OTHER MINIMUM ES - 
SENTIAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR DOWNTOWN RE - 
NEWAL. Downtown renewal is almost impossible without these 
environments. It should be noticed that the list makes no mention of 
the size of local problems. There is no direct connection between 
the severity of the crisis and the amount of constructive action likely 
to be taken. 



15 



ORGANIZATION 

No clear, definite statement can be made on the roles of 
municipal planning and related agencies of other cities to be applied 
to Gainesville because they differ so greatly and because their 
organization frequently defies logic. An attennpt can hardly be made 
in setting up a form of organization for redevelopment in Gainesville 
until a format of essential environments have been created. 

However, the following two basic principles of organization 
are necessary: 

1. The most effective downtown action requires 
the existence of a strong city planning depart- 
ment which has to become a primary objective 
of private organizations. 

2. The interdependence of public agencies and 
private organizations in downtown renewal must 
be recognized as basic to effective action. 

OBJECTIVES 

Numerous problems of downtown areas may be seen from as 
many view points as there are interests in the area. These interests 
imply the many conflicts based on the advantages and disadvantages 
of specific projects to the different groups, but this never seems to 
be the case. It is characteristic of downtown areas that the various 
establishments are very interdependent, and that they have many 
similar needs. It is quite evident, there are some real conflicts of 
interest. One of the primary tasks of any renewal organization is to 
force personal and business services, retailers, hotels, banks, 
theaters, and governmental bodies to recognize and be aware that 
they have not only similar needs, but their establishments cannot 
possibly survive without each other. 

When interdependence is recognized, many downtown organi- 
zations have trouble in planning because they fail to distinguish be- 
tween nn.eans and objectives = = confusing short-terin remedial action 
with genuine renewal. 

If central business districts are to compete with the suburban 
shopping centers on their own terms, they would have to acknowledge 
defeat at the very outset. The cost of writing down land values to 
provide the ratio of open land devoted to parking to retail floor area 
would be outrageously high as densely built up as is most of our 
downtown areas. 



16 



The central business district does not have to, and should not, 
underrate its many attractions. If there are no attractions, this is 
another question. Positively, the downtown area need not compete 
merely in the size of its parking lots. It can and must compete as a 
desirable and pleasant place to shop and do business. 'To turn our 
central business district into a vast parking area with stores in the 
center would be to destroy the urban quality of the area and the sur- 
rounding region. For the action of people to come to the downtown 
area with absolutely no parking problems would be a great achieve- 
ment in itself; but to cause this "action" there has to be a force or 
incentive to create this action. Parking spaces cannot and will not 
provide this "action". 

Also, major building programs are not ends in themselves; 
for the physical improvement of the downtown is only a means of in- 
creasing the quality, and generally the volume, of downtown activity. 
Although new construction is tangible evidence of confidence in the 
downtown's future, sometimes other and better means to the same 
objectives will be overlooked if every new building improvement or 
investment is defined as progress. 

Probably what actually occurs is that downtown groups are 
unable to see the connection between action that benefits the entire 
downtown area and action that benefits certain establishments and 
activities. To state the point most bluntly: although downtown busi- 
ness and civic groups may truly believe that -what is good for busi- 
ness is good for the community, they also believe that the "business 
of business is profit-making". Thus, people, not only business men, 
respond more readily to profit-making opportunities, and slowly 
where the appeal is largely to non-economic interests. 

Most urban areas, after historic economic activity, become 
specialized in one or two specific areas of industry or manufacturing. 
This specialization, which was appropriate a few years ago, may be 
made less so now; but it is extremely difficult, even for small cities , 
to change from one direction to another no matter how sound new 
proposals may be. Thus, many economic reports are wasted because 
cities cannot or will not put into practice their advice, for example, 
to neglect manufacturing in favor of building up tourist trade. 

In the project of large scale redevelopment, some, often 
raany, personal and business interests are damaged. It is obvious 
and understandable why the traditional downtown business groups will 
do almost anything to avoid "rocking the boat". It probably happens 
that what is felt by citizens to be the most they can possibly do, will 
appear to outside observers as no action whatsoever. 



17 



It's quite apparent why it is difficult for local groups to take 
broad, long-range objectives seriously or to grasp the significance 
of the non-economic side of downtown problems. However, the suc- 
cessful group almost always is able to define its specific and general 
goals. It is characteristic of the many redevelopment groups that 
have remained doininant or died that they have not only completed 
building projects, but usually have not agreed on objectives or could 
not reach such an agreement. 

It is probable that more groups fail at the next step- -the 
selection of priorities - -for the determination of broad goals requires 
only minor compromises. Where a group fails to go beyond the first 
step, the cause frequently is personality conflict. Failure to make 
the second step, which is the setting of priorities, probably reflects 
weak leadership, although it may also be the result of genuine, ap- 
parently insoluble conflicts of interest. 



Even with many obstacles for a local group to the choice of 
objectives and priorities, somehow they are chosen. In review of 
master plans and articles of incorporation of development groups, 
the following illustrates basic objectives for the central core area of 
many cities: 

(a) the maintenance and increase of retail wholesale, 
service, and other economic activities within the 
downtown area, and, indirectly, for the entire 
region; 

(b) the attraction of private industrial, commercial 
and building investnnent to the area, and, indirect- 
ly, to the region; 

(c) the stabilization of high employment levels in the 
downtown area; 

(d) the improvement of the prestige and influence of 
the district in order to succes sfully provide social, 
economic, and political leadership to the region; 

(e) the improvement of cultural, recreational and wel- 
fare services which properly belong downtown, al- 
though used by the entire region; 

(f) the maintenance and increase of the downtown's 
contribution to total city tax revenues; 



18 



(g) the building of groups and organizations of private 

citizens able and willing to maintain constant vigi- 
lance over the interests of the district and the 
community and the establishment of effective co- 
operation with city government. 

There is usually little disagreement over objectives at the ab- 
stract level or general planning goals. Many master plans do not 
offer a list. Actually, an individual must read through many master 
plans for downtown renewal to receive a feeling for the limited hori- 
zons of most of them. The impression projected from many master 
plans, and planners thenriselves, is that they are trying to avoid long- 
range predictions and probable long-term consequences. This reluct- 
ance of planners reflects the ways in which urban economics and 
polities actually operate. It would be enlightening to collect the ideas 
supplied among planners in the course of research and design work 
and deliberately left out of final reports. Such ideas as monorails, 
heliports, underground delivery system, and elevated pedestrian 
walks might provide an important insight into what long-range plan- 
ning would look like if it were done in more plans. It would also indi- 
cate the enormous price paid by our cities and its citizens for their 
unwillingness or inability to plan beyond the next decade. 

The relatively few conflicts that develop over specific down- 
town plans are usually based on what is felt to be the difference of 
specific interests. No matter how carefully or impartially planning 
is done, some individual and groups will benefit at the expense of 
others. Although it is rarely clear at the outset what the conse- 
quences of various projects will be; the very lack of predictability 
probably prevents inany conflicts. In that approach, the lack of gen- 
eral awareness of the probable consequences of shopping malls, 
motor hotels, and other features of the typical downtown master plan 
prevents unified opposition. Void of powerful leadership, the feeling 
of many is that the effects of planned change may be uncontrollable 
works against any large-scale planning. By the way, although there 
may be little or no organized opposition, legal action by single re- 
tailers or property owners has sometimes obstructed whole plans. 
The important role or downtown business and Chamber of Commerce 
groups to prevent, by pressure and persuasion, just such costly , 
extended court proceedings cannot be over emphasized. 

Objectives are chosen on the basis of both objective and prej- 
udiced estimates of future results. In these calculations, it is very 
important that the distinction be maintained between what is central 
to the revitalization of a downtown area and what is desirable but in- 
cidental. The latter is typical of so much talk and action on parking 
lots, store hours, etc. This action requires only limited organiza- 
tion and leadership provided by the typical traditional downtown 



19 



groups of many cities. The goals of genuine renewal are consider- 
ably more complex and costly. 

There is no simple or reliable way of deferring and agreeing 
upon abstract goals for a future city, and this is especially true of 
business areas. The major portion of the problem has its derivation 
from the heritage of uncoordinated gro-wth and change; no more evi- 
dence of that heritage than the fact that many of the country's largest 
cities had, until very recently, small or no planning staffs. The ob- 
jective and critical analysis offered by planners and social scientists 
are sometimes important in policy making, but in good times few 
people are interested in gloomy prophecies. For many years, people 
have been willing to argue that maintaining downtown's traditional 
dominance over the region's economy required little more than a new 
building here and a parking lot there; and unquestionably the downtown 
area which is brightened by new groups of buildings, streets, malls, 
and parks is better off than it was before. All of these so called 
answers have tended toward seeking a solution in changing the central 
business physically, when the real problem lay at the doorstep of the 
merchants themselves, individually and collectively. The merchants 
in those downtown areas which have suffered badly have paid the 
price for not keeping up with competition, for taking too much for 
granted, and for not really understanding their customer market. 

Downtown areas, viewed in a practical way, have a rather 
short-term hope unless and until it turns from the false but promising 
ideas of physical renewal and renovation toward the blunt and more 
difficult analysis of marketing, distribution, and sales analysis. Al- 
though this is not a simple thing to do after years of blaming some- 
thing else for the problem, there can be little future for the central 
business but continued decline in market share and in market func- 
tion. The problem of downtown stems from the fact that the near- 
sightedness and marketing apathy of the merchants is almost exclu- 
sively in the small merchant category. Many of these are not broadly 
based in true merchandising and have failed to grasp the essential 
point that in the new marketing competition, the central business dis- 
trict needs must be promoted and sold. Only by promotion, conscious 
and marketing conscious efforts, can the central business areas hope 
to maintain their position as the retail, cultural, and financial center 
of an urban area. 



CONCLUSIONS 

Private organizations and public agencies are equally respon- 
sible for downtown renewal leadership. One cannot exist to serve the 
other. The planning agency must operate in the interests of the city 
and all its people, and should not be responsive to narrow demands 



20 



except as they are required by planning in the form of a democracy. 

The environment for planning and renewal of leaders of var- 
ious organizations must be willing and able to think and operate al- 
most simultaneously on the downtown district, the city, 'and its sub- 
urban area. 

Distinction should be made between large-scale and limited- 
focus action. Downtown renewal will be most succes sful where it is 
a continuing process rather than sporadic. Downtown Gainesville now 
requires drastic action. The ultimate objective has to be the accept- 
ance of coordinated planning as a permanent requirement. The 
twentieth century dictates that the steady modernization of equipment 
and methods is the least expensive and most productive way of oper- 
ating a business in the long run. This also applies to a city. 

Downtown renewal cannot be put in terms of private enter- 
prise OR government. The required programs are too large and 
too complex for effective renewal without joint cooperation. This may 
seem very obvious to many, but it is not. There are many cities in 
which government and business are each waiting for the other to 
move. Unfortunately, recent experience indicates that--lacking re- 
newal action- -the first move that business, industry, and people are 
likely to make is out of the city. Downtown Gainesville has come 
along the path of its history to the point of either of two directions: 



Decline or Renewal 



21 



Dovfntovfn 

Gainesville 

Today 




A. Historic Base 



25 



HISTORY 

Isolated neither by geography nor time, downtown Gainesville 
can only grow. It is approximately only half a square mile in size, 
but it is the heart of a region that serves approximately nine hundred 
square miles. The downtown Gainesville area will be determined by 
what the people in this area do in the future; the downtown Gainesville 
of today has been determined by what people have done in the past. 
An understanding of downtown Gainesville today can only come after 
an examination of its historic base. 

BACKGROUND 

The City of Gainesville is relatively new in comparison to St. 
Augustine which has a history longer than any other city in the United 
States. In comparison to the newer cities in the southern part of the 
state, Gainesville's growth has been unspectacular and its impact on 
the nation slight. However, the story of this city is significant, for it 
reflects the history of the state and the nation in miniature. 

The area in which the City of Gainesville exists today was 
known as Potano Province in 1539 when the explorer DeSoto marched 
through the area. The name Alachua was given to the area by the 
Creek Indians who took possession of the territory upon the English 
acquisition of Florida in 1763. 

The land upon which the City of Gainesville is situated is a 
part of a grant of 289, 646 acres from the King of Spain to Don Fer- 
nando de la Mata Arrendondo and Son, merchants of Havana, Cuba. 
The Arrendondo Grant, dated December 22, 1817, took as a central 
point a Seminole Indian village called Alachua. The word Alachua is 
said by some to mean grassy, while other authorities claim it means 
jug--perhaps in reference to the large sink hole nearby. The Arre- 
dondo Grant was made void when Florida became a territory of the 
United States by treaty with Spain on February 22, 1819. 

After the annexation of Florida to the United States in 1821, a 
sufficient number of new settlers from Georgia, Alabama, and the 
Carolinas had arrived in Florida to give the area territorial status. 
As the population increased, Florida's counties were divided and sub- 
divided. In 1824, Alachua County, once a part of Saint Johns, was 
created. At this time, Alachua County's far-reaching boundaries en- 
compassed the present Baker, Bradford, Columbia, Gilchrist, Levy, 
Suwannee, and Union Counties, and also parts of Clay, Charlotte, 
Citrus, Hernando, Hillsborough, Manatee, Marion, Pasco, Putnam, 
and Sarasota. Migration into Florida brought statehood in 1845. 

The first county seat was the town of Newnansville. In terms 



26 



of present location, the settlement was four or five miles northeast 
of the town of Alachua. Late in 1854 an effort was made to change the 
courthouse from Newnansville to a white settlement which had begun 
to grow around a small trading post named Hog Town. Gainesville, 
as it presently exists, was only a ridge of oaks - -sorhetimes deri- 
sively referred to as "Hog Wallow" --between Hogtown Creek and the 
prairie. Since the question of changing the location of the county seat 
was left to the vote of the people, the eastern strength gained suffi- 
ciently to move the courthouse to its present site, Gainesville. 

How Gainesville got its name is reminiscent of a statement 
Samuel Johnson once made about history: "If a man could only say 
what he could prove, history could not be written. " Whatever the real 
story, Gainesville's name was a compromise. It is Sciid that the town 
was named after General Edmund P. Gaines of Seminole War fame. 

The railroad was to come through Gainesville, and the town 
was platted with no inhabitants. The original 103 1/4 acres of the 
new town was bounded on the north by Fifth Avenue; on the south by 
Second Place; on the east by Sweetwater Branch; and on the west by 
Second Street. This area is approximately the same today which com- 
prises the Central Business District. The land originally sold for 
$632. 51 (Deed Book H, page 384, Alachua County Court House, Gain- 
esville). The following is an excerpt from the Board of County Com- 
missioners, 1854, in the establishment of the physical layout of Gain- 
esville from which its physical growth has been established. 



COMMISSIONERS' REPORT 

EAST FLORIDA, NEWNANSVILLE 

At a called meeting of the Board of County Commissioners. 

Order No. 1 . 

In persuance of the Act of the General Assembly, entitled "An 
Act to Provide for the Election of the County Site of Alachua County, " 
approved December 28, 1852, we the County Commissioners of 
Alachua County have purchased a suitable County site at the place 
selected by vote. 

Ordered that the Judge of the Probate be, and he is hereby 
authorized to employ a suitable person to lay off the land so purchased 
into lots in conformity with the said Act, the survey, to be com- 
menced by the 15th inst. , the following to be made the basis of said 
survey: 



27 




xnr: 



- i< 



A square tobe reserved in the center, as near may be, 
containing four acres; four main streets entering the 
square to be 90 feet wide, the other streets to be 40 
feet wide, the entire town to be surrounded by a street 
not less than 30 feet wide, the place to be named 
Gainesville. 

Source: Page 63 and 85, Old Records County Commissioners, 

1846 to 1871, dated September 6, 1854. 



28 



THE RAILROAD 

During the first years of Gainesville's existence, the coming 
of the railroad influenced its growth and success. By 1858 the rail- 
road from Fernandina had reached only to Waldo with it-s destination 
directed towards Cedar Key. By the winter of 1859 the rails reached 
the center of town; and by I860 the connection between Fernandina and 
Cedar Key was terminated. 

The railroad brought about the first business boom of the town 
since it was no longer an isolated settlennent. The railroad provided 
access to the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts and to the shipping facilities at 
both Cedar Key and Fernandina. The people in the surrounding area 
were found to use the railroad at Gainesville as a shipping and re- 
ceiving point for their goods. The stores and hotels v/ere clustered 
around the courthouse square, just as they are today. 

By I860 eight or nine businesses were established, three 
hotels, and 45, 934 acres of land in the county under cultivation which 
produced 21, 474 bales of Sea Island cotton. Alachua County's greatest 
product was that of livestock with which she led the counties of the 
state. It can be readily seen that Gainesville found a market for their 
goods and services. As a result of this, there was a feeling of con- 
fidence in the destiny of Gainesville with its location on a railroad 
line in the middle of a thriving agricultural area. 

By I860 Gainesville had a population of 269 (223 White and 
46 Negro). Alachua County, at this time, had a population of 8, 232 
(4,465 of the inhabitants, or 54 percent, were Negro). It was the 
seventh largest slaveholding county in Florida. 

Although the people of Gainesville were somewhat isolated be- 
fore the completion of the railroad in 1859, concern was given to 
building a town and to the education of their future citizens. On Dec- 
ember 7, 1857, an education facility called the Gainesville Academy 
was established by the Board of County Commissioners. 

After the Civil War, the school was taken over by the state 
and operated as the East Florida Seminary. Today this block is the 
location of the First Methodist Church. The first church was erected 
in 1859 (Presbyterian) with much of the social life of the town revolv- 
ing around it. 

SECESSION AND THE CIVIL WAR 

Differences between the North and South of the United States 
had grown to such intensity during the 1850's that men of the South 
talked of secession and a war. This idea was not new to Florida 



29 



even when it entered the Union in 1845. By February 4, 1861, seces- 
sion had been declared in South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. The firing on Fort Sumter, 
Charleston, South Carolina, brought an end to any hope of averting 
war. 

Although far removed from the scene of major campaigns, 
Gainesville felt the hardships and terror of war. Florida, with priva- 
tion at home, was furnishing food for the Confederate Army that was 
below market price due to the Impression Act of 1863 by the Con- 
federate Congress. 

As the Confederacy becaine increasingly dependent on the food 
supply of Florida, the Union became more interested in reaching the 
interior of the state. Fernandina, St. Augustine, and Pensacola had 
been under Union control since 1862, and blockade ships constantly 
patrolled the coastline; but a serious invasion of the state did not 
occur until February 7, 1864, when Jacksonville was permanently 
occupied. From this point, raiding parties filtered into the interior 
of the state. The railroad, which had been so instrumental in the 
growth of Gainesville, now appeared to be a path of destruction. 

The war was over in 1865. The town had felt the terror of 
two enemy attacks - -actual skirmishes --in 1864. The suffering they 
had endured had been for nothing, and the coming years ahead were 
to be difficult. 

RECONSTRUCTION 

On May 24, 1865, martial law was proclaimed throughout the 
state by military proclamation. During the winter of 1865, civil law 
was partially rested to Florida with local officials in towns and 
counties directed to resume their duties. 

Gainesville had never been incorporated; and, therefore, had 
no local government other than that of the county. Recognizing the 
need for a group of local officials to direct and supervise the growing 
town, the people desired the town's incorporation. By an act of the 
State Legislature, the people incorporated the town in 1866 with 
ordinances governing elections and powers of officials. Although the 
mechanics of local government were established, it was rather 
ambiguous in practice. Under the new Constitution of Florida of 1885, 
the legislature enacted laws which compelled Gainesville to reincor- 
porate. On April 12, 1869, the town was reincorporated with a form 
of government organized and officials elected. 

The corporate limits of this town commenced at a point one 
mile due north from the center of the Court House, thence east one 



30 



mile, thence south two miles, thence west two miles, thence north 
two miles, thence east one nnile to the point of beginning, containing 
in all four square miles. 

While Gainesville was suffering under political reconstruction, 
events were occurring which shaped the social and economic progress 
of the community. By October of 1865 the town was "booming" with 
prospects so bright that the civic leaders encouraged the establish- 
ment of more business. By 1867 a photograph studio was established, 
a inillinery and dress shop, a new hotel, a seafood restaurant, a shoe 
factory, an iron foundry, and a machine shop. 

Rents were "beyond reason" with new houses and stores being 
built in ever increasing numbers. The number of businesses in 
operation increased to thirty, and the volume of trade was said to 
have been ten times what it had been before the war. The prosperity 
of the town's businesses was based on the agriculture of the sur- 
rounding area. A business recession, brought about by a crop failure 
in 1867, was temporary; and with a rapid recovery the upward trend 
continued. One factor in this recovery was the rapid establishment 
of railroad communication. However, railroad transportation was 
probably responsible for introducing Yellow Fever into the area in 
1871 which took about 50 lives of the approximate 1, 500 inhabitants. 

Behind the political and economic growth stood the people and 
their way of life. Following the war, the people lived in a noisy, 
brawling town with rioting and fighting on the public square accepted 
as a common occurance. 

Apart from the scene of noise and violence was the substan- 
tial and conservative church-going portion of the population. Before 
the end of Reconstruction four denominations were holding services 
in their own buildings. The Baptists, in 1875 constructed a building 
on what is now the corner of Main and Southeast Second Avenue. The 
Methodists built at the present Northeast First Street and Northeast 
Fourth Avenue. The first Episcopal Church was built in 1873 at the 
present site of the Masonic Temple on North Main Street. 



^ ^ -x- ^ ^ 



31 



4V.*f'?:*' :.^-. 



^*^. «ft-..V^-*«-'S»'*~.'f.-».«" *■'.' 







PubllSf]ed by J.J. STONEF^, Madison. Wis. 



f>)urt IIoDse. 

County Jail. 

East Florida Seminary. 

II. a. Land OBIfO. 

ArlinitU>n Hoiisi^, I- (J. OoiinlB. 

Varniiin •• J. Vnrnuu). 

Ma»rnolia " A. H. A (Book. 

Gaiiios7ill« " 

Oliver 

IlauU. H. K. Diitton .* I'o. 

Cotton (iinnory. H K. liiitUin A- <'.o. 

Foundry uiii] Miirlillu' Work.'*. Dolif & Harr;:i 

I'lunini; Mill, Pa,sh aiiU liUnit M»niiiai>U>ry. l><u;;<n!r & Doan. 

Saw anil J'l.-itilni; Mill, l,uii;lit<>ii Uroa. & ()r>'o«. 

Planing Mill. .Siu.li. lj.>..r :',.,<i i;|lii,I MHnufauiory, B. C. Drak 

.'fnw »ljll. II.C. Dnik.-. 

LKr>ry, Food an'J Siil<> Suihlug, Ooll, I'oniid i, Co. 

ProkhyliM iau Lliiircli. 

llaptlBt 

KpUuupal " 

MothodlBt 

Afrionn MothiHlist Cburcbea. 

" Itnptist •' 

•• «. Iwol 




^ 




COUklTY 



SEAT 





CTT] C,"? 



CJ2 i 




CHUA COUHTY 



J. E, Lambeth, Real Estate and Insurance, Liberty cor. E. Main St. 

Fred. Bayer, Saloon, Union cor. W. Main St. 

Rawlins & Wilson, Heal Estate and Insurance, Liberty cor. W. Main >St. 

<i. W. Ferrill, Grocer, Liberty St. 

Kceler & Sctzer, Painters and Dealers in Paints and Oils, Wall Paper, ac.. 

West Main St. 
L. A. Jerni^n, Watchinalter and Jeweler, Liberty St. 

A. J. Vidal, M. D., Drusgist, Liberty cor. E. Main St. 
McClellan & Ellis, Hardware and Furniture, E. Main St. 

Leighton Bros. & Green, Manufacturers and Shippers of Florida Moss. 

Taylor & Sanchez, Attorneys, Union St. 

Mrs. F. X. Miller, General Merchivndiae, W, Main cor. Liberty. 

N. R. Gruelle, Civil En(?ineer, Prairie St. 

M. I. Harrell, Grocer, Union St. 

"W. N. Wilson, Stationer and Confectioner, E. Main St. 

Halliday & Kush, Land Agents and Attorneys, Union St., cor. University 

John C. Eastman, Books, Stationery, Musical Instruments, tK„ Liberty St 

Wm. Wade Hampton, Attorney. E. Main St., cor. Mechanic. 

Chas. O. Hampton, " " .44. 

Louis Roux, Man', of Carriages, Wagons, &o., Masonic St. opposite 00 Jail. 

B. M. Smith, Tinsmith, West Main St. 

P. Meisner, Harness Maker, West Main St. 
H. R. White, Contractor and Builder, GainesTille House. 
Ohas. L. Filde's, Editor Daily and Weekly Bee, Union St 
McCreary & White, Editors Alachua Advocate, Union St. 



Ji£CK &9/MjU,Litho.><ilWauKee,Wis. 



THE GROWTH (1880 - 1900) 

Commerce and industry were developing at a rapid rate during 
this period. A minor depression, brought about by over-optimisrn 
and over-extension of credit, marred Gainesville's steady growth in 
1880; but it was short in duration, and did not long impede the pro- 
gress which continued into the twentieth century. 



New stores were built and old ones remodeled; the courthouse 
square was fenced; and a 4-story hotel was constructed to accomodate 
the expected influx of visitors. An indication of the prosperity of the 
town during the 1800's was the number of houses and business 
buildings constructed. Real estate agents were running advertise- 
ments in the local newspaper for distribution in the North to encour- 
age new settlers. Gainesville was considered to be one of the most 
healthful spots in the United States. There ■were five hotels in town. 
Two hotels were open only during the winter season. Great care was 
taken of their accomodations, for their presence brought economic 
contributions to the success of the businesses around the square. 



To serve the people of the area, many shops and stores opened 
their doors. The names of Baird, Burkhim, Phifer, Vidal, Endle, 
Miller, Bodiford, and Edelstein became synonymous with the retail 
commerce in the city. By 1898 the town had fifteen grocery stores, 
four fish and meat markets, seven dry goods stores, two bakeries, 
two men's speciality shops, three racket stores, four drug stores, 
four furniture stores, a bicycle shop, two seed stores, a nrausic store, 
two tailor shops, two barber shops, three livery stables, and four 
saloons . 



Based on the agricultural and natural resources of the area, 
developed in the years following Reconstruction were the cotton gin- 
ning and cotton seed oil milling business; a foundry to manufacture 
kettles, sugar mills, and machinery for agricultural pursuits; the 
manufacturing of fertilizer and the phosphate industry. 

Despite the advent of mining, industry, and commerce, the 
foundation of Gainesville's economy remained agricultural. Until the 
twentieth century, cotton remained one of the principal crops in this 
area. The development of the fast railroad transportation made the 
raising of truck crops a lucrative business for the farmer. "Orange 
fever" struck Gainesville during the decade following the Civil War 
and by the 1880's Gainesville was surrounded by orange groves. 
After several freezes, the one occurring February 9, 1899, took. with 
it the last vestige of faith in "orange gold". 



34 




Southeast Fourth Street and Southeast Second Avenue 
(Site of New Federal Building) 

As previously mentioned, the railroad played the dominant 
role in the economic basis of Gainesville and its commercial center. 
A visitor arriving at the Florida Railway and Navigation Company 
Depot around 1885 did not find it necessary to hire a buggy or walk to 
his destination in town. A horse railway had been organized and 
incorporated with wooden tracks circling the courthouse square and 
headed east on University Avenue to the corner of Southeast Second 
Street. However, the entire line had fallen into disuse and thus dis- 
continued. 



In 1881 attention was given to improving the streets by putting 
up street lights on the main streets and street corners for travel and 
pedestrians. The water supply of the city posed a great problem for 
the rapidly growing town, and to alleviate the situation, the City 
Council in 1882 and 1883 attempted to drill an artesian well. 
Before work was halted on the well because of the depth, rtch gold 
bearing ore was found. Thoughts of turning Gainesville into a gold 
mining town vanished, however, when it was learned that because of 
the depth of the ore, the expensive mining operations would cost more 
than would be earned. 



35 




The Button Bank - 1907 
Northeast corner of West University and Northwest First Street 

A gas plant was established in 1887. The first telephones 
were installed in 1894. By 1897 an electric light plant was providing 
electricity for business and homes. A new court house was erected 
in 1885 on the original site which dominated the town from its central 
position on the square. 



In 1884 fire started on the corner of South Main and Southwest 
First Avenue. Then on the same day a fire broke out in the Arlington 
Hotel, situated on University Avenue where the Woolworth store is 
now located. Two years later a fire burned out the block on the south 
side of the square. The businessmen immediately began the construc- 
tion of new brick buildings to replace the wooden structures. Many 
of these buildings are standing today. (See the map under the Building 
Inventory section of this report. ) 

Gainesville, in the 1880's and 1890's, possessed all the attri- 
butes of a "frontier boomtown". Authority rested not with the law but 
with the gun, knife, and fist. 



36 




till 11.1 1 ^P^ffM 




:JZ:B^^ 



.■_:2i«,n!aiai:. 



■S'-'tf&i-'J^^--: 



^amwju-K'.'f^vc.- 



i^Mi!': 



Northwest corner of Southeast First Street and 
Southeast Second Avenue 

EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY 

The first part of the twentieth century brought about a change 
in the higher education of Florida which was to shape the destiny of 
Gainesville as much as the coming of the railroad had affected the 
city some fifty years ago. Between the founding of the East Florida 
Seminary in Gainesville in 1857, which moved to Ocala in 1866, and 
the Buckman Act of 1905, the University of Florida was established 
in Gainesville. The institution on its present campus began in the 
fall of 1906. The Legislature of 1947 made the University of Florida 
fully coeducational. 

By special legislation and amendments to the City Charter in 
1905 and 1907, Gainesville went into many improvement programs 
under general revenue bonds for a new sewer system, a municipal 
electric plant, and the improvement of streets. In 1912, bids were 
received and the contract let for bricking the streets within the 
central section of town. These same streets are in use today. 
During this period of transition, Gainesville's senmi-rural environ- 
ment became more urbanized with additional governmental service 
and fire protection. In 1910 the Federal Building (Post Office Build- 
ing ) was completed. 



37 




The Courthouse Square 
South Elevation - Southwest First Avenue 

Two years before the war broke out in Europe, four new busi- 
ness blocks were built on the streets encompassing the courthouse 
square. The Baird Theater, now occupied by the Cox Furniture store 
on the corner of Southeast First Street and Southeast First Avenue, 
was the leading theater in town. The first movie theater in town was 
on the second floor of the building of the Citizens Bank. By 1920 
automobiles were a common site on the streets. 

The first twenty years of the new century was a period of 
rapid change in Gainesville with a population increase from 3, 633 to 
6, 860. World War I, with the exception of its economic effect, had 
little impact on life in Gainesville. During this period, the develop- 
inent of new means of transportation (airplanes, automobiles, etc. ) 
and communication (telephones, radios, etc.) contributed to the 
growth and prosperity of Gainesville. 

THE CHANGING SCENE: 1920 - 1930 

While the boom in Gainesville cannot be given full credit for 
changes which occurred in the town during the twenties, the impetus 
which it gave to business activity accelerated the development of 
many improvements. The city manager - commission form of 



38 




8:!'^'.;^i«gar'y":>a^v<j; ;a;y y,: 



v^m/^tri^' 



^^^^jg^ 



v>i. :J?''»^'JB':^8ifa. 



The Old Fire Station - Number 1 
Southwest corner of Southeast First Street and 
Southeast Second Avenue 
government was established, the building of a city hall in 1927 at its 
present location, more adequate fire and police protection, the con- 
struction of a hospital, the increase in paved streets, and the ex- 
pansion of electrical facilities came during this period. Gainesville, 
during the "roaring twenties", was outwardly a sedate, law-abiding 
town. 

THE DEPRESSION ERA 

The depression, like the land boom before it, was not so 
striking in Gainesville as it was in the southern part of the state. 
Gainesville did not face the high concentration of unemployment that 
was prevalent in the industrial cities of the nation. Her position a.^ a 
service center for the surrounding agricultural area and the presence 
of the University furnished a monthly source of income to be spent in 
the town and helped to prevent mass unemployment and decline in re- 
tail sales. 

Federal aid projects constructed during this period were of 
material value to Gainesville beyond the einployment they provided 
and the money they placed in circulation. Various projects improved 



39 




View looking east along West University Avenue fronn Second Street 



the city streets, constructed the municipal airport, extended sewer 
lines, improved water works, and aided in the completion of the un- 
finished Kelly Hotel, a hotel construction project started during the 
Florida "land boom" and later acquired by the State, which is now 
the Georgia Seagle Building. 



CIVIC ADJUSTMENT AND GROWTH: 1940 - 60 

The war had not affected Gainesville any more than thousands 
of other cities throughout the United States. The econonny of the town 
had been keyed to the military needs of the country, and Gainesville's 
physical facilities had been modified to meet the demands of the 
national situation. 

The most spectacular change in Gainesville occurred, how- 
ever, following World War II with thousands of students, nnany accom- 
panied by their families, flooding into the town. The University 
student body in 1950 was approximately three times as large as it was 
when the war began, with a corresponding increase in faculty and 
personnel. 



40 




View looking south along Southeast First Street from the 

Courthouse Square 

The presence of this institution and the resulting influx in 
population has changed the basis of the town's economy, and has 
kept Gainesville constantly expanding her physical facilities in an 
effort to keep up with the continually growing demands. The downtown 
area of Gainesville, in this significant expansion of the city, has fail- 
ed to keep up with the demand. No new stores, other than a recent 
addition to the Woolworth store, have been erected.- Not more than 
four commercial buildings, two banks, and the new Alachua County 
Court House have been built during this period. 

The Gainesville urban area has grown in tremendous strides, 
with the downtown area only growing more obsolete. It is rather 
obvious that only one direction has to be taken to meet the growth and 
demand that has taken place- -"renewal action". 



^ 



^ 



^ 



¥: 



¥: 



41 




B. Economic Base 



43 



BACKGROUND OF ECONOMY 

Prior to World War II, the economy of Gainesville and its 
region, which had been based primarily on service to the large farm 
area which surrounded the town, shifted to an economy based heavily 
on the University and its personnel. Manufacturing became less im- 
portant in the total economic picture. By 1950 only 727 persons of 
Gainesville's 10,402 workers were employed in manufacturing. By 
comparison, the wholesale, retail, and service trades employed 3,808 
and the University furnished employment for 3, 097. On a basis of 
total payroll, the University was the most important contributing 
factor in the economy. The annual payroll for manufacturing in 1950 
was $1, 352, 200; for the combined wholesale, retail, and service 
trades it was $7, 175, 136; and $7, 600, 884 for the University. 



However, the University is the basic industry responsible for 
the large number of persons employed in the "service" jobs. Any 
urban area which does not raise its own food and raw materials is 
forced to provide goods or services for the people living outside the 
area in order to pay for goods which it does not produce. For ex- 
ample, manufacturing supplies this need in many cities in the North; 
interstate transportation by truck, air, and rail are important in 
cities such as New York, Atlanta, Houston, and New Orleans; recre- 
ation and tourist services are basic to the economy of cities in the 
southern part of our state; and government payrolls support the citi- 
zens on Washington, D. C. A university in a small city can be the 
basic economic contributor or factor since it draws in money from 
outside the community. In 1950 the University of Florida, with the 
Agricultural Experiment Station and other agencies, furnished about 
three-fourths of the basic economic support of Gainesville. A survey 
of the city in 1950 showed that the trade areas and the factories would 
not support a town of over five thousand inhabitants, and that since 
1940 Gainesville had increased in size in direct ratio to the student 
enrollment at the University of Florida. In addition to this, in 1950 
Gainesville had more persons employed in service occupation in pro- 
portion to those working in the productive lines than in Washington, 
New York, or Chicago. This condition existed because of the Univer- 
sity and the expenditures of its students who had an income but were 
not working in the community. An additional factor in the support of 
these service workers was the presence of National Government and 
State offices employing 1, 131 persons and paying an annual payroll of 
$2, 565, 651 - -most of which was spent in the city. These factors, 
combined with the growth of population, resulted in prosperity and 
expanded business activity during the late 1940's and early 1950's. 



44 



EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME 

The I960 Census shows a disproportionate picture of the 
Gainesville urban area. However, for the purpose of determining 
employment trends of the total employed 5, 675 are private wage and 
salary workers and 4, 300 are government workers. These two cate- 
gories comprise the bulk of the employment which reflects the 
employnnent of the University of Florida and the number of profes- 
sional and technical activities. There has been an increase in the 
professional, technical and kindred workers from 1940 to I960. This 
trend reflects the growth of the University of Florida and work allied 
to it. 

Employment by industry also reflects the effect of the pro- 
fessional calibre of employment generated by the University of 
Florida. Of the total enriployment in I960 of 10, 842, 4, 235 employed 
persons are shown to be in the professional and related services 
group. This is more than twice the next ranking category of whole-' 
sale and retail trades, showing 1,903 persons employed followed by 
professional services showing 1, 390. 

The 1949 Gainesville median income was $2,500 with an in- 
crease to $4,202 in 1959- This compares to the Alachua County urban 
income of $2,066 in 1949 increasing to $4,471 in 1959. These figures 
are somewhat less than the Florida income showing $4, 956 for 1959. 

Personal income by source also reflects the significant eco- 
nomic contribution of the University of Florida showing total income 
from government sources accounting for $33, 556, 000 of the total 
Alachua County income of $90,787,000. This income from govern- 
ment sources represents almost 37 percent of the total income by 
source. The second ranking income by source is from the retail and 
wholesale trades showing 13.8 percent. Manufacturing contributed 
to 7.9 percent of the income and agriculture 6 percent. The cate- 
gory of service trades and professions showed 9. 8 percent of the 
total income by source. 

NUMBER OF INHABITANTS OF GAINESVILLE 

The principal factors related to the total number of inhabit- 
ants of Gainesville that affect its increase or decrease are: natural 
increase, net migration, and annexation, with contributing factors of 
housing, employment, and retirement conditions. 

During the decade of 1950-60, the new population within the 
Gainesville area was forced to reside outside of the corporate bount- 
ary because of the lack of adequate land development. Consequently, 



45 



the i960 Census, counting only those within the municipal boundary, 
does not show a true representation of the population of the city. It is 
estimated that the population of I960 after minor adjustment of the 
location of census tract boundary lines and the urban area of the city 
would show a total population figure, including University student en- 
rollment, of approximately 48,500 persons; an increase of 21,639 
persons and a percent change of 80. 6 percent for the decade. With 
these adjustments, favorable comparisons may be made with other 
political subdivisions. 



DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION 

The corporate area prior to January 1, 1962, comprised 4,064 
acres, or 6.35 miles. The 29,701 persons then actually residing 
within the corporate boundary established a population density of 7. 32 
persons per acre. This population density of approximately 7.81 per- 
sons per acre is the optimum density being established by a theoreti- 
cal ratio of 5, 000 persons per square mile. The area annexed com- 
prising 10,899 acres, or 17 square miles, provided a population 
density of 1. 73 persons per acre to the estimated 18, 799 persons in 
the area. The present estimated population of 52,000 persons pro- 
vides a population density of 3.48 persons per acre. Based upon the 
theoretical standard of 5, 000 persons per square mile, the old city 
limits could accomodate a maximum population of 31, 750 persons. 
This would only permit an additional 2,049 persons over the I960 
Census figure of 29, 701 persons. This vividly illustrates the degree 
of development within the corporate area prior to the 1962 annexation. 

POPULATION PROJECTION 

The maximum forecast for the City of Gainesville may be ex- 
pected to prevail based upon the anticipated effects of the announced 
location of the Veterans Administration Hospital to be built in the City 
of Gainesville. This would result in a population of 66, 550 in 1965; 
90,000 in 1970; and 165,000 in 1980. The median range which might 
be expected without the contribution of the Veterans administration 
Hospital but including normal expansion of the University of Florida, 
the obtaining of significant new industries, and the prevailing rates of 
natural increase and net migration would amount to 64, 000 persons in 
1965; 81,000 in 1970; and 140,000 in 1980. The minimum forecast 
shows 60,000 persons in 1965; 76,000 in 1970; and 120,000 in 1980. 
In general, the maximum projection represents a rate of increase 
closely resembling that experienced during the past decade. The 
median rate of increase follows closely that rate of growth which pre- 
vailed from 1930 to 1950, the two decades during which the major 
depression and World War II occurred. 



46 



The rate of increase of population and percent of population 
gain for Gainesville has consistently exceeded that of Alachua County 
since 1930. This trend of urbanization today is characteristic of most 
counties in Florida and, in fact, the United States. The average in- 
crease experienced by Gainesville's urban area during fhe past de- 
cade of 80. 6 percent exceeds slightly that experienced by the State of 
Florida of 78. 7 percent. 

The i960 Census showed a population of Alachua County of 
74, 074 persons. This represents an increase of 17, 048 persons over 
the 1950 Census population of 57, 027 giving an increase of 29. 9 per- 
cent for the decade. The urban area of Gainesville represents 65. 6 
percent of the total county population. This reveals a consistent in- 
crease of Gainesville as a percent of the total county population, 
ranging from 30.4 percent in 1930 to the all-time high of an estimated 
65.6 percent. The adjusted population representing Gainesville's 
urban area "would likewise increase the Gainesville population as a 
percent of Florida in I960 to almost one percent. This shows a con- 
sistent rise since 1930 of . 713 percent to the present high. 

Basic information regarding race, sex, and age are almost 
average for a city of Gainesville's size in the South. It is noted that 
in 1930 the non-white population represented 39- 2 percent of the total 
population. This declined to 22. 2 percent in 1950 and to 18. 5 percent 
of the Gainesville urban area in I960. A projection of this trend 
would indicate an approximate non-white population in 1980 of 1 6 per- 
cent of the total. 

In 1930 the male population represented 47.9 percent of the 
total population. This declined in 1940 to 47. 1 percent but showed a 
major increase in 1950 of 55.9 percent. This has consistently de- 
clined since 1950 to a 51. 6 percent in I960. Projecting this trend to 
1980 would result in a male population representing 49 percent at that 
time. The high peak realized in 1950 of 55. 9 percent is attributed to 
the large number of male veterans then attending the University. 



THE DOWNTOWN ECONOMY 

The ultimate economic goal of the Downtown Plan is the con- 
version of the downtown area into the kind of econornic unit that will 
permit the consolidation of regional functions now in the area and the 
retention of a strong retail market. Retailing is a paramount down- 
to'wn function. The recent commencement in the decline of retail 
trade, with the realization that it will continue in this direction 
based on the information contained herein of downtown Gainesville, 
initiated the program of this report. 



47 



The loss of downtown commercial income is not the experience 
of this city alone; commercial cores are declining in many cities of 
the nation. It has been referred to as the "crisis of the central city", 
because the results of economic decline in central business districts 
transcend its paper boundaries. This downtown economic crisis must 
be detailed in order to understand in full perspective the framework 
for, and value of, a plan for downtown renewal. 

The core area of our cities are losing their residents, usually 
the upper and middle income families. They move into the suburbs, 
where there is plenty of room, lower taxes, and freedom from the 
city's old and problem-filled neighborhoods. 

The central city loses income because its basic source of re- 
venue, the tax on real estate property, is no longer sufficient; the 
city cannot tax the new housing developments because they are beyond 
its legal boundaries. In basis, this was the situation prior to the 1962 
annexation of the City of Gainesville. At the same time, many of 
those who no longer live in the central city continue to work or shop 
there, and the city must continue to maintain services. These muni- 
cipal functions increase in cost, while the money to pay for them 
grows more scarce. In the past, most of the major shopping was 
done in the core of the city. There have always been small neighbor- 
hood shopping areas where nearby residents bought food, where they 
could have shoes repaired, or clothing cleaned, but downtown was the 
merchandise center for the entire region. Families came downtown 
in the trolley car, or later, by bus. Shopping took a whole day; there 
were so many stores where one could compare prices and merchan- 
dise. 



THE RETAIL AREA 

The move to the suburbs made possible by the mass ownership 
of automobiles changed the shopping habits of American people. 
These residents must drive to work, drive home, and drive to shop. 
The number of persons who come to downtown stores for most of 
their purchases has decreased, and the effective region of influence 
of downtown retail stores has spread from the central business area. 
Gainesville's region of influence enconnpasses all of Alachua County 
and areas of contiguous counties. 

American suburbs have not been planned. This "sprawl" is 
based on the assumption of universal automobile ownership and not on 
naass transit. Even in close-in residential areas the effect on 
existing transit lines has been drastic. When, at first, it was more 
convenient to drive the family car downtown than it was to take a bus, 



48 



the transit companies suffered their initial loss of passengers. The 
transit companies eventually regrounded by raising fares and cutting 
service on sonae lines to make up for the lost revenue. Those people 
who still wanted to use the transit system often found the new fares 
too high, or the new schedules inconvenient, and they, too, took the 
car downtown. 

The cumulative effect is that shopping downtown has become 
bothersome with traffic congestion and parking. Cities have tried to 
cope with the flood of automobiles, but have failed. Money has poured 
into construction of streets and parking garages to care for the auto- 
mobile, and mass transit has been left behind. This conflict, in 
existence for many years, between the car and downtown, between 
shoppers' initiative and their inability to do anything about it, has re- 
cently been partially resolved, but not by action in the central city 
business district. 

Because downtown traffic and parking difficulty was the chief 
complaint of shoppers, new shopping areas have been created OUT of 
downtown on sites near major expressways or major thoroughfares, 
quickly and easily reached and surrounded by acres of free parking 
space. These shopping centers usually compete directly with down- 
town. Many downtown stores often have branches in these new shop- 
ping centers. And, as total retail sales have increased in the shop- 
ping centers, they have decreas ed in downtown. 

In turn, the decline in sales results in an eventual loss of tax 
income to the city. As downtown property meets this new value, 
assessments also drop to meet this new value. Tax revenue raised 
on downtown property is usually a very large proportion of a city's 
tax income, and a loss here is very important. 

The central business area must renew its economic heart in 
order to improve its economic base. One of the most important 
factors to a new downtown is an improvement in retail trades. People 
must be brought back downtown to shop. This may be impossible in 
some cities where the suburban shopping center is too strong; in 
Gainesville there is still time to "turn the tide". 

DOWNTOWN RETAILING 

Information regarding the retail sales within the downtown 
area in relation to the total retail sales volume of the City of Gaines- 
ville is not available nor would expected response be sufficient to 
obtain adequate sales analysis. From this lack of information, pro- 
jections cannot be made between the amount of floor space and the 
dollar volume of business performed. Although it is well known 



49 



among business men within the downtown area that their retail sales 
in volume have declined by competition in outlying areas, no one can 
say how much. This is a responsibility of downtown merchant groups 
in coordination and joint endeavors towards improving merchandise, 
advertisement, etc. 

RETAIL SALES 

Estimated gross retail sales for the City of Gainesville and 
the gross retail sales for Alachua County — indicates the estimated 
retail expenditure in the City of Gainesville to be $69, 930, 921 for 
I960 as compared to Alachua County with an annual total of 
$106, 764,002. The monthly breakdown of retail expenditures during 
the past years indicates a maximum peak as of January with a falling 
off in retail sales through the spring and a continued decline duririg 
the summer with a gradual build up from September through Dec- 
ember, reaching a peak again in January. This reflects the typical 
retail sales volume cycle showing the traditional Florida slump for 
this portion of the state and reflects increased buying during holiday 
seasons . 

Since the University of Florida and its allied facilities are the 
largest economic contributor to Gainesville, concern should be de- 
voted to the expenditure of University students. It is estimated that 
the buying power of the enrollment at the University during a nine- 
month period i$ $10, 550, 000. The Bureau of the Census reported 
that retail sales in Gainesville in 1958 amounted to $56,778,000. 
These were 25. 8 percent greater than they had been in 1954--an in- 
crease of about 6.4 percent per year. In 1961, student expenditures 
amounted to about 15 percent of the total retail sales volume within 
the City of Gainesville. With the tri-mester plan in operation, more 
students will be in Gainesville for ten or eleven months per year. 

/2 
A recent report —indicates the relationship between estimates 

of total student expenditures and estimates of total retail sales in 
Gainesville in 1961. The total expenditures for food and beverages 
exceed the total sales in 1961 for all eating and drinking places. This 
is due to the fact that students included money paid to the University 
and to fraternal organizations whose sales are not included in the 
total retail sales volume of Gainesville. Approximately 8 percent of 
all food sales and 10 percent of all apparel sales may be attributed to 
student patronage. Twelve percent is devoted to drug stores. Stu- 
dents account for about one-third of personal services; one-fourth of 
amusement and recreation; and one-fifth of receipts of auto repair 
and laundry and cleaning establishments. It can readily be seen that 
student patronage is essential to the continued profits of these estab- 
lishments. 

1/ Dealer's Monthly Tax Reports , State Comptroller's Office. 

2/ Marketing Study No. 1, Department of Marketing, College of 

Business Administration, University of Florida, 1962. 

50 




imA. 







*«» 



'■'..•'•Sak 



C. Gainesville 



51 




VICINITY MAP 

MIIES 



CIIAPMIC SCALE 



AREA CHARACTERISTICS 

Gainesville, the University City, and the county seat of 
Alachua County, is located in North Central Florida, approximately 
200 feet above sea level midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the 
Gulf of Mexico, as well as being alnnost the exact geographic center 
of the state. 

Major transportation routes serving the city are U. S. 441, 
State Roads 20, 24, 25, and 26 all providing access to and from the 
city. The "Old Orange Blossom Trail" on U. S. 441 vrings travelers 
from the North through Gainesville along one of Florida's most scenic 
routes leading south into the citrus and lake section of Central 
Florida. The above Vicinity Map shows the general connecting 
routes of the interstate system for North Florida. This system will 



52 




remove most of the future through traffic in Gainesville, although it 
will decrease travel time within the region. 

An attractive year around climate with an average tempera- 
ture of 69. 9° prevails for the city. This temperature, in addition to 
approximately 49. 9 inches of average rainfall per year, contributed 
to the desirability of agricultural pursuits. The geographic region 
contains pleasingly attractive rolling hills with the soil ranging from 
well drained and loamy soils in the western part to well and imper- 
fectively drained sands in the east. Several lakes, both large and 
small, surround the city. A large flat area known as "Paine s 
Prairie" exists south of the city and provides a wild life sanctuary in 
addition to serving cattle grazing purposes. The character of the 
vegetation is closely related to the soil, with hammocks of hardwoods 
in addition to species of pines in the western part, and with turkey 
oak and long leaf pines, with and without palmetto, in the eastern 
part. 

By a Special Act of the Florida State Legislature of 1961, the 
City of Gainesville expanded its corporate boundary for a new total 



53 



CLASSIFICATION 

SINCLE FAMIiy 

2»3 FAMILY 

4 8 MORE FAMILIES 

HOTELS » MOTELS 

FRATERNITIES 8 SORORITIES 

RESIDENTIAL TOTAL 

OFFICES 

RETAIL BUSINESS 

AUTO GENERATORS 

BUSINESS TOTAL 

COMMERCIAL 
INDUSTRIAL 

COMUEROAL TOTAL 

SEMI-PUBUC 

PUBLIC 

RIGHT OF WAY 

PUBUC TOTAL 

RAILROAD RIGHT OF WAY 
VACANT LAND 

GRAND TOTAL 





1961 




PRESENT 


CITY 


UMBER ACRES PERCEN 


5696 


1087 04 


27 84 


364 


53.30 


1.37 


241 


59.59 


1.53 


6 


481 


12 


28 


26.60 


68 


6335 


1231.34 


31.54 


131 


22.39 


57 


437 


76.90 


1.97 


121 


56.51 


1.45 



689 


15580 


399 


181 


6779 


1.74 


8 


697 


.18 


189 


7476 


192 


79 


6469 


1.65 


40 


70340 


1802 




53982 


13.83 



119 



70.01 
1224 18 



4064.00 



172 
27 33 

100.00 



ANNEXATION AREA 

NUMBER ACRES PERCENT 



4130 


1861.28 


1707 


66 


12.88 


II 


21 


19.38 


17 


7 


3199 


29 





000 


0.00 


»224 


192553 


1764 


23 


20.24 


.18 


98 


4389 


.40 


23 


66 93 


61 


144 


13106 


1.19 


76 


267 98 


2 45 


6 


119 00 


1 09 


82 


366 98 


354 


28 


19031 


1 74 


17 


2860 20 


26 24 




91 1 74 


836 



4495 



84 06 
4409 32 



10899.20 



77 
40 52 



10000 



1963 

FUTURE CITY 



NUMBER ACRES 



9826 
430 
262 

13 
28 

10559 



2948.32 
66.18 
78.97 
36.80 
2660 

315687 



PERCENT 
1 

19.70 
.44 
.52 
2A 

.17 

2107 



154 


42.63 


28 


535 


I2a79 


.80 


144 
833 


123.44 
28686 


.82 
1.90 


257 


33577 


2.24 


14 


12597 


,84 


27! 


461.74 


308 


107 


25500 


1.70 


57 


356360 


2381 




145156 


970 


164 


527016 


35.21 




154.07 


1.02 




563350 


3772 



14963.20 



loaoo 



PRESENT GAINESVILLE AREA LAND USE 

PLANNING DEPARTMENT JULY I , lyol GAINESVILLE . FLORIDA 

area of 14, 963 acres or 23. 35 square miles. This increase repre- 
sents a gain of 268 percent of the previous corporate area, which 
comprised 4, 064 acres or 6. 35 square miles. 

The above table shows the proportion of land area devoted to 
various uses. Perhaps one of the most striking characteristics of the 
present land use pattern for the City of Gainesville is seen in the 
large amount of land used for public purposes. The bulk of this pub- 
lic land is used by the University of Florida, by the Gainesville Muni- 
cipal Airport, and by Sunland Training Center. The remaining por- 
tions are consumed by land used for public schools (15), cemeteries, 
and other miscellaneous public and semi-public uses. 



54 




D. Description and Analysis 



55 




' o x> o ST 3^ ^ x> 3^ y 



LAND 

The downtown area of the City of Gainesville is situated in the 
uplands, approxinnately 180 feet above sea level, midway between the 
Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Within the downtown area 
there are two drainage basins that commence within the area for 
storm draining facilities. The area is almost entirely a natural unit. 
The land and water areas that were familiar a century ago to the 
founders of Gainesville are generally the same today. 



57 




SHOPPING CENTERS 

The study area comprises 207. 8 acres of which only 35 acres 
is in extent the downtown area. The three major shopping centers 
that presently exist today, Central Plaza Shopping Center (University 
Avenue and Northwest 6th Street), J. M. Fields Plaza (Northwest 
13th Street and Northwest l6th Avenue), and the Gainesville Shopping 
Center (North Main Street and Northwest 14th Avenue), comprise 28.1 
acres which are in areas equal to the major business area of the 
downtown core as shown on the map. In the true definition of a region- 
al shopping center, the minimum land area is approximately 30 acres 
or the total of all three existing shopping centers listed above. In 
overlay to the downtown area, any distances across town in other 
directions do not exceed one quarter of a nnile. Anyone who parks his 
car in this area or on its immediate periphery finds all parts of the 



58 



downtown area easily accessible on foot. In other words, the whole 
of the central business district is no larger than a regional shopping 
center. However, the central core area provides many professional, 
governmental, and financial institutions that no shopping center pro- 
vides. 

LAND USE 

The reason for the development of the commercial center of 
Gainesville at this point is an historical one, based on the selection 
of a seat of county government and transportation. There is an exten- 
sion of commercial land use for activities that might be found down- 
town along West University Avenue toward the University of Florida. 
There is another extension of strip commercial land use from the 
central business district north along North Main Street. Other than 
the railroad on West Sixth Street and the Sweetwater Branch and the 
extension of Boulevard to Southeast 4th Avenue on the east, there is 
no clear demarcation of the boundaries of the central business 
district. 

The northern boundry of the downtown area appears, at first 
glance, to be an entirely artificial one. A visitor to Gainesville, 
coming by automobile from some point to the north of the city, could 
not define where the central business commences and terminates 
other than visual measurement of the density of business establish- 
ments and traffic and pedestrian volume. The northern boundry was 
located on Fifth Avenue, based on the original city limits boundry 
line, to provide a sufficient peripheral area for the downtown area 
and a northern east-west circulation route. The southern boundry, 
along Fourth Avenue, was established as the last major east-west 
arterial street that will be of major significance to the downtown area 
in its future growth and in relation to the probable expansion of the 
Utility Operations Center of the City of Gainesville. 



The decentralization of retailing has caused a shrinkage of 
commercial land use within the central core of many cities. In the 
case of Gainesville, no specific area of ground loss can be estab- 
lished. Some of the shrinkage that is present now and that will con- 
tinue is the automotive uses in the southeastern part of the downtown 
area and office uses on the second floor of many buildings. 



59 




xs. -fc o 



-fc-i^Ld 2p- 



The whole of Gainesville occupies 24.5 square miles. The 
downtown area and the boundaries for this study occupies only 207. 8 
acres, including streets or 1.4 percent of the City's land area. Taken 
together, land and improvement values in the area constituted 11 per- 
cent of the total assessed valuation on land and improvements within 
the City in 1962. 

LAND USE ANALYSIS 

A survey of land use in downtown Gainesville, prepared during 
the initial phase of the downtown study, was made in conjunction with 
a building and occupancy survey, and an analysis of tax records of 
assessed value of land and improvements taken by Hunnicutt and 
Associates, St. Petersburg, Florida, 1959. All data on which the 
tables and maps presented in this study are based were taken from 



60 



this information received with the cast-off date of October 1, 1962. 
The survey provides a sufficiently detailed picture of downtown land 
use and building conditions to show the great need for a better plan 
for downtown Gainesville. 

At the time of the survey, the summary totals of downtown 
assessment values (100 percent evaluation) and areas were as follows: 

Land value (all parcels with buildings 

excluding tax exempt properties) $17, 958, 700. 00 

Land value (all parcels excluding 

tax exempt properties) $ 9,439,962.00 

Building value (includes buildings in 

path of new Federal Building plus 

widening SW 2nd Avenue) $ 8,518,738.00 

Total area (all parcels and 

rights-of-way) 207. 78 Acres 

Total area of land (excluding tax 

exempt properties) 126. 18 Acres 

Total area of rights-of-way 59. 38 Acres 

Total area of land of tax exempt property 22. 22 Acres 

Gross ground floor area 1, 822, 520 square feet 

Gross total floor area 2, 521, 813 square feet 

There is a total of 31.236 percent of land coverage or that 
portion of the study area that is covered by buildings or structures. 
The average price per square foot of land, excluding tax exempt 
properties, is $1.72. 

Of the total 207.78 acres comprising the study area, 60.7 per- 
cent is land devoted to activities; 28. 6 percent is devoted to streets, 
alleys, or rights-of-way; and 10. 7 percent comprised of tax exempt 
properties of either public or semi-public uses. 

It should be pointed out here that the percent of land devoted 
to streets, 28. 6 percent, or 59. 38 acres, is exceptionally high. The 
area consumed by these rights-of-way with the study area equal 
approximately the area devoted to all the paved runways and taxi 
lanes at the Municipal Airport. 



61 



II lyjL 




LAND VALUE AND' VALUE -RATIO 

The map of land value makes it very clear that within down- 
town Gainesville there is a wide spread in land value, and also that 
high values are found in a very distinct core on which are located the 
major retail and financial establishments. On a map included in the 
following pages (page 75), floor area per square foot of land was 
plotted. There is a close correlation between this ratio and land 
value; land of the highest value is also land with the greatest amount 
of usable floor space. It can be readily seen that the high values are 
all grouped together around the Court House Square with a westward 
extension along University Avenue. 



62 





^akJIBy] 









When the value -ratio of buildings to land is plotted, the land 
value map tends to be the inverse, even though certain structures and 
ownerships cause minor variations. It is readily seen that the high- 
est ratios are on the fringe of the central core area, except for the 
Alachua County Court House. That is to say, while the core of the 
district contains the largest number of the most valuable buildings, 
they are not as valuable as might be desired when one considers the 
value of the land they occupy. However, the case in fact is that there 
are few valuable buildings in the downtown area. 



63 




OCCUPANCY 

In preparation for the planning phase of this study, a nnajor 
part was devoted to the collection and analysis of data concerning 
occupancy of buildings in downtown Gainesville. The findings, 
according to various classification by type of activity or use, are 
presented in tabular form; other data are summarized in the text. 
The following tables are a tabulation of the square footage of only 
building space devoted to various activities. However, all parking 
lots and used car sales Idts were computed on the square footage of 
land area. In computing the total and average space occupied by var- 
ious types of activities, it was found necessary and beneficial to di- 
vide the study area into five (5) zones (A, B, C, D, and E) as the 
above map indicates. Zone A comprises the major retail core of the 
downtown area. 



64 



Total Study Area 



TOTAL AND AVERAGE SPACE OCCUPIED BY TYPE OF ACTIVITY 



Type of Activity 

RETAIL USE 

Retail Trade Establishments 
Food Stores 

Eating, Drinking Places 
General Merchandise 
Apparel, Accessories 
Furniture, Appliances 
Automotive 
Drugstores 
Other Retail 

Personal and Repair Services 
Amusement, Recreation, and 
Gasoline Stations 

OFFICE USE 

Banks, Savings &c Loan Assoc. 
Business Services 
Professional Services 
Private Business Services 
Manufacturers' Sales Offices 

PARKING 

PUBLIC, SEMI-PUBLIC 

Public Buildings and Services 
Private Institutions 
Organizations, etc. 
Terminals - Bus, Railroad 

WHOLESALERS (With Stock) 
Merchants 
Warehouses 

INDUSTRIAL 

RESIDENTIAL 
Hotels, Motels 
Other 

VACANT 

TOTAL 



No. of 


Sq. Ft. 


Average 


Per- 


Units 


Occupied 


Sq. Ft. 


cent 


162 


796, 747 


4, 918. 2 


25.9 


125 


699, 515 


5,422. 6 


22. 7 


4 


5,944 


1,486.0 


. 2 


14 


34, 223 


2, 444. 5 


1. 1 


9 


194, 920 


21, 657. 7 


6.3 


33 


137, 282 


4. 160.0 


4. 5 


16 


61, 037 


3, 814. 8 


2.0 


•17 


192, 547 


11. 326. 2 


6.3 


6 


14, 361 


2, 393.5 


. 5 


26 


59,201 


2, 276. 9 


1.9 


26 


49.469 


1, 902. 6 


1.6 


11 


47, 763 


4, 342. 1 


1. 5 


136 


312, 608 


2, 298. 6 


10. 2 


5 


46, 694 


9, 338.8 


1. 5 


52 


139, 855 


2, 689.5 


4.5 


45 


77, 189 


1, 715. 3 


2. 5 


30 


42, 260 


1,408.6 


1. 3 


4 


6, 610 


1, 652. 5 


. 2 



35 



13 



615 



59 


319, 


703 


26 


147, 


270 


14 


126, 


770 


17 


23, 


916 


3 


21, 


747 


18 


117, 


885 


5 


39, 


518 


13 


78, 


367 



72 



377 


687, 


699 


5 


60, 


654 


372 


627, 


045 


54 


152, 


734 


855 


3,075, 


696 



636 



684 



17, 589. 6 



6,057.0 



20.0 



5,418. 6 


10.4 


5, 664. 2 


4. 8 


9,055. 


4. 1 


1,406. 8 


. 8 


10,873. 7 


. 7 


6, 549. 2 


3. 8 


7, 903.6 


1. 3 


6,028. 2 


2. 5 



2.4 



1,824. 

12, 130. 

1, 681. 


1 
8 

1 


22.4 

2. 

20.4 


2, 828. 


4 


4.9 


3, 588. 


9 


100.0 



Total Zone A 



TOTAL AND AVERAGE SPACE OCCUPIED BY TYPE OF ACTIVITY 





No. of 


Sq. Ft. 


Average 


Per- 


Type of Activity 


Units 
115 


Occupied 
561, 882 


Sq. Ft. 
4, 721. 6 


cent 


RETAIL USE 


47. 1 


Retail Trade Establishments 


95 


529,920 


5, 352. 7 


44. 5 


Food Stores 


2 


4,698 


2, 349. 


.4 


Eating, Drinking Places 


8 


16, 770 


2,096. 2 


1.4 


General Merchandise 


9 


194,920 


21, 657. 3 


16.4 


Apparel, Accessories 


32 


136, 262 


4, 258. 2 


11.4 


Furniture, Appliances 


11 


39.424 


3, 584.0 


3. 3 


Automotive 


5 


77, 282 


15, 456.4 


6.5 


Drugstores 


6 


14, 361 


2, 393. 5 


1. 2 


Other Retail 


22 


46, 20 3 


2, 100. 1 


3.9 



Personal and Repair Services 
Amusement, Recreation and 
Gasoline Stations 



17 



11, 659 



20, 303 



685. 8 



6, 767. 6 



1.0 



1. 7 



OFFICE USE 

Banks, Savings & Loan Assoc. 
Business Services 
Professional Services 
Private Business Services 
Manufacturers' Sales Offices 

PARKING 

PUBLIC, SEMI-PUBLIC 

Public Buildings and Services 
Private Institutions 
Organizations, etc. 
Terminals - Bus, Railroad 

WHOLESALERS (With Stock) 
Merchants 
Warehouses 

INDUSTRIAL 

RESIDENTIAL 
Hotels, Motels 
Other 

VACANT 

TOTAL 



81 


152,488 


1, 882. 5 


12. 8 


4 


45, 712 


1,428.0 


3. 8 


28 


40, 173 


1,434. 8 


3.4 


27 


34,019 


1, 259.9 


2. 8 


19 


27, 154 


1,429. 2 


2. 3 


3 


5,430 


1, 810. 


.5 


13 


231, 336 


17,795. 1 


19.4 


19 


129, 339 


6, 807. 3 


10. 9 


6 


83, 727 


13, 954. 5 


7.0 


1 


27, 860 


27, 860.0 


2. 3 


12 


17, 752 


1,479.3 


1.6 


4 


14, 940 


3, 735.0 


1. 3 


4 


14, 940 


3, 735.0 


1. 3 


2 


5, 290 


5, 290.0 


.4 


5 


17, 156 


3,431. 2 


1.4 


2 


11, 866 


5, 933.0 


1.0 


3 


5, 290 


1, 763. 3 


.4 


18 


79,576 


4,420. 9 


6. 7 


257 


1, 192,007 


4, 567.0 


38. 8 



Total Zone B 



TOTAL AND AVERAGE SPACE OCCUPIED BY TYPE OF ACTIVITY 



Type of Activity 

RETAIL USE 

Retail Trade Establishments 
Food Stores 

Eating, Drinking Places 
General Merchandise 
Apparel, Accessories 
Furniture, Appliances 
Automotive 
Drugstores 
Other Retail 

Personal and Repair Services 
Amusement, Recreation and 
Gasoline Stations 

OFFICE USE 

Banks, Savings h Loan Assoc. 
Business Services 
Professional Services 
Private Business Services 
Manufacturers' Sales Offices 

PARKING 

PUBLIC, SEMI-PUBLIC 

Public Buildings and Services 
Private Institutions 
Organizations, etc. 
Terminals - Bus, Railroad 

WHOLESALERS (With Stock) 
Merchants 
Warehouses 



No. of Sq. Ft. 

Units Occupied 



10 
6 



58,432 
42, 773 

4, 218 



Average 
Sq. Ft. 

5, 843. 2 
7, 295.5 

4, 218.0 



Per- 
cent 

13. 3 
9.7 

1.0 



3 


34, 146 


11, 382.0 


7.8 


2 


4,409 


2, 204. 5 


1.0 


1 


951 


951.0 


.2 


3 


14,708 


4, 902. 6 


3. 3 


:i 


52, 572 


2, 503.4 


11.9 


6 


18, 330 


3,055.0 


4. 2 


9 


24, 180 


2, 686. 6 


5.5 


6 


10,062 


1, 677.0 


2. 3 


6 


64, 500 


10, 750.0 


14.7 


4 


49, 103 


12, 275.0 


11. 2 


2 


44, 800 


22,400.0 


10. 2 


2 


4, 303 


2, 151. 5 


1.0 


1 


760 


760.0 


. 2 


1 


760 


760.0 


.2 



INDUSTRIAL 



RESIDENTIAL 
Hotels, Motels 
Other 

VACANT 

TOTAL 



80 


199, 


462 


1 


32, 


844 


79 


166, 


618 


8 


15, 


308 


130 


440, 


137 



2,493.2 45.3 

32,844.0 7.5 

2,109.0 37.8 

1,913.5 3.4 

3, 164. 3 14. 3 



Total Zone C 



TOTAL AND AVERAGE SPACE OCCUPIED BY TYPE OF ACTIVITY 





No. of 


Sq. Ft. 


Average 


Per- 


Type of Activity 


Units 


Occupied 


Sq. Ft. 


cent 


RETAIL USE 


6 


35, 907 


5, 984.5 


12. 1 


Retail Trade Establishments 


4 


33,485 


8, 371. 2 


11. 3 


Food Stores 










Eating, Drinking Places 










General Merchandise 










Apparel, Accessories 










Furniture, Appliances 


1 


2, 300 


2, 300.0 


.8 


Automotive 


3 


31.185 


10, 395.5 


10.5 


Drugstores 










Other Retail 











Personal and Repair Services 
Amusement, Recreation and 
Gasoline Stations 

OFFICE USE 

Banks, Savings & Loan Assoc. 
Business Services 
Professional Services 
Private Business Services 
Manufacturers' Sales Offices 



2 


2,422 


1. 211.0 


. 8 


4 


10, 310 


2, 577. 5 


3.5 


I 
I 
2 


7,560 

714 

2,036 


7,560.0 

714.0 

1,018.0 


2.5 
. 3 
. 7 



PARKING 



111, 100 



2, 220. 



37. 5 



PUBLIC, SEMI-PUBLIC 

Public Buildings and Services 
Private Institutions 
Organizations, etc. 
Terminals - Bus, Railroad 



4 


33, 821 


8,455. 2 


11.4 


2 


22, 787 


11, 393.5 


7.7 


2 


11,034 


5, 517.0 


3. 7 



WHOLESALERS (With Stock) 
Merchants 
Warehouses 

INDUSTRIAL 

RESIDENTIAL 
Hotels, Motels 
Other 

VACANT 

TOTAL 



1 


4,000 


4,000.0 


1.4 


1 


4,000 


4,000.0 


1.4 


3 


21, 536 


7, 178. 6 


7. 3 


45 


64, 440 


1, 432.0 


21.7 


45 


64, 440 


1, 432.0 


21. 7 


7 


15,423 


2, 203. 3 


5. 2 


75 


296, 537 


3, 175. 1 


9.6 



Total Zone D 



TOTAL AND AVERAGE SPACE OCCUPIED BY TYPE OF ACTIVITY 



Type of Activity 

RETAIL USE 

Retail Trade Establishments 
Food Stores 

Eating, Drinking Places 
General Merchandise 
Apparel, Accessories 
Furniture, Appliances 
Automotive 
Drugstores 
Other Retail 

Personal and Repair Services 
Amusement, Recreation and 
Gasoline Stations 

OFFICE USE 

Banks, Savings &; Loan Assoc. 
Business Services 
Professional Services 
Private Business Services 
Manufacturers' Sales Offices 

PARKING 

PUBLIC, SEMI-PUBLIC 

Public Buildings and Services 
Private Institutions 
Organizations, etc. 
Terminals - Bus, Railroad 

WHOLESALERS (With Stock) 
Merchants 
Warehouses 

INDUSTRIAL 

RESIDENTIAL 
Hotels, Motels 
Others 

VACANT 

TOTAL 



No. of 
Units 

16 
9 



1 
2 
1 

2 

5 

2 

17 

9 
7 
1 

8 

12 
7 
4 



Sq. Ft. 
Occupied 



8 
4 
4 



36 

27 

11 



1. 


020 


4, 


655 


1, 


645 


8, 


589 


5, 


517 


3, 


766 


64, 


685 


46, 


563 


16, 


860 


1, 


262 



162 

49 
24 
21 



62 
20 
41 

13 



82 


160,468 


1 


7,464 


81 


153,004 


9 


14,487 


154 


564, 932 



782 
499 

590 



800 

980 
916 
621 

443 

122 

436 
686 

608 



Average 


Per 


Sq. Ft. 


cent 


2, 298.9 


6.5 


3, 055.4 


4.9 


3, 863. 3 


2. 1 


1,020.0 


. 2 


2, 327. 5 


.8 


1, 645.0 


.3 


4, 294. 5 


1. 5 


1, 103.4 


1.0 


1, 883.0 


.7 


3, 805.0 


11.5 


5, 173. 6 


8. 2 


2,408. 5 


3. 1 


1, 262.0 


. 2 



19 
7 
1 

1 

2 



035. 

165.0 
559.4 
405. 2 

443. 



804.0 

569.0 
464.0 
888. 9 

609. 6 

754. 3 



28. 8 

8. 8 
4.4 
3. 8 

.6 



7, 


765. 2 


11.0 


5, 


109.0 


3.6 


0, 


421. 5 


7.4 



2.4 

28.4 

1. 3 

27. 1 

2.6 

18.4 



Total Zone E 



TOTAL AND AVERAGE SPACE OCCUPIED BY TYPE OF ACTIVITY 



Type of Activity 

RETAIL USE 

Retail Trade Establishments 
Food Stores 

Eating, Drinking Places 
General Merchandise 
Apparel, Accessories 
Furniture, Appliances 
Automotive 
Drugstores 
Other Retail 



No. of 


Sq. Ft. 


Average 


Per 


Units 


Occupied 


Sq. Ft. 


cent 


15 


103, 744 


6, 916.5 


17.8 


11 


65, 838 


5, 985. 3 


11.3 


2 


1, 246 


623.0 


.2 


2 


1,645 


822.5 


.3 


2 


14,658 


7, 329.0 


2.5 


5 


48, 289 


9, 657. 8 


8. 3 



Personal and Repair 
Amusement, Recreation and 
Gasoline Stations 

OFFICE USE 

Banks, Savings St Loan Assoc. 
Business Services 
Professional Services 
Private Business Services 
Manufacturers' Sales Offices 

PARKING 

PUBLIC, SEMI-PUBLIC 

Public Buildings and Services 
Private Institutions 
Organizations, etc. 
Terminals - Bus, Railroad 

WHOLESALERS (With Stock) 
Merchants 
Warehouses 



3 


31, 342 


10,477.4 


5.4 


1 


6, 564 


6, 564.0 


1. 1 


13 


32,553 


2, 504. 1 


5.6 


1 


982 


982.0 


.2 


8 


27, 229 


3,403.5 


4.7 


1 


1,416 


1,416.0 


.2 


2 


1, 746 


873.0 


.3 


1 


1, 180 


1, 180.0 


.2 


3 


45, 900 


15, 300.0 


7.9 


20 


57,460 


2,873.0 


9.9 


11 


15, 840 


1, 440.0 


2.7 


5 


21,455 


4, 291.0 


3. 7 


3 


1, 861 


620.4 


.3 


2 


18, 304 


18, 304.0 


3. 1 


4 


36,063 


9,015. 7 


6.2 


1 


19,082 


19,082.0 


3. 3 


3 


16, 981 


5, 660. 3 


2.9 



INDUSTRIAL 



32, 250 



5, 375. 



5. 5 



RESIDENTIAL 
Hotels, Motels 
Other 

VACANT 

TOTAL 



165 


246, 173 


1,491.9 


42. 3 


1 


8,480 


8,480.0 


1. 5 


164 


237, 693 


1,449. 3 


40. 8 


12 


27, 940 


2, 328. 3 


4.8 


238 


582,083 


2, 399. 1 


18. 9 



SPACE USE 

Downtown Gainesville contains approximately 3,076,000 square 
feet of actual space devoted to various activities. Thirty percent of 
this space is occupied by retail uses (including the 3 peTcent used by 
personal and repair services, gasoline stations, amusement, and re- 
creation); 10 percent by banks and other business and professional 
services; and 10 percent by organizations and public uses. Indus- 
trial uses and wholesalers together account for 5 percent, and hotels 
and other residential uses account for 23 percent of space use. Of the 
total study area, 20 percent is devoted to parking. As previously 
mentioned, parking is computed in the space occupied by land area. 

OCCUPANCY SURVEY 

Due to time, personnel, and the fact that a written question- 
naire and the expected percent return would be involved to get an 
accurate analysis of downtown, only Zone A was considered in an 
interview with every establishment occupying space within the central 
retail core area. 

The retail core (Zone A) contains approximately 1, 192,007 
square feet of actual space devoted to various activities. Forty-seven 
percent of this space is occupied by retail uses (including the 2. 7 per- 
cent used by personal and repair services, gasoline stations, amuse- 
ment and recreation); 13 percent by banks and other business and 
professional services; and 11 percent by organizations and public 
uses. Industrial uses and wholesalers together account for 2 percent; 
hotels and other residential uses account for 1 percent; 20 percent is 
devoted to parking; and 6 percent is vacant space. 

All data regarding the questionnaire in Zone A are presented 
in the following tables. From the time the interviews were first 
initiated and the original tabulation of establishments occupying space 
within Zone A, 3.6 percent of the retail use, 21 percent of office uses, 
and 33. 3 percent of public or semi-public uses had either moved or 
gone out of business. The high percentage of public and semi-public 
uses was due to the movement of various offices and agencies from 
old, temporary offices to the new addition of the Alachua County Court 
House. 

Of the 42 percent in the retail use category, the 29- 6 percent 
in the office use category, and the 25 percent in public and semi- 
public use category did not disclose the amount of rent paid in the 
occupancy survey. In the category of public, semi-public uses, most 
of the occupants did not know. Only 1.1 percent of the establishments 
in Zone A would not cooperate in any manner in the occupancy survey. 



71 



RENTS AND LEASES 

As expected in a downtown area, the number of establishments 
who own the premises they occupy is small. Of the central core of 
the study area (Zone A) this figure is 15. 2 percent. 

The common form of lease is for an average period of 6. 2 
years. Fifty-eight percent of the leases were signed three years pre- 
ceding the survey. The average time expired on leases signed prior 
to the survey is 3.5 years, with an average of 2. 6 years remaining on 
all leases. Two percent of the occupants' renting indicated paying 
rents on a percentage basis -with a minimum guaranteed rent. 

However, 53. 4 percent of those paying rent do not have a 
lease. Of the total number of occupants in Zone A, 45. 3 percent 
rent on a monthly basis, and the remaining 39. 5 percent of the occu- 
pants lease. The average monthly rent is $199.44. The average 
yearly r^nt per square foot is $1. 15 for the various activities. 

Occupancy Survey — ZONE A 















Rent 


















Sq. Ft. 




L 


ease 








Own 
Premi 
No. 


% 


Total 
Monthly 
No. % 


Monthly 
No. % 


Leas 
No. 


% 


% B 
No 


% 


No 


Monlhly 




Av« 

Le 

y 


nglh 


Ejtpired 
Years 


Av. Re- 
maining 
Years 


o/ Oc- 
cupancy 
Years 


RETAIL USE 

Retail Trade Eetablishmenca ■ . 


14 

n 


13 

13 
3 
36 
40 
33 
10 


97 

29 
19 


87 
100 

89 

97 
67 
60 
67 
90 


4t 

1 

7 
2 

5 
3 
1 


29 
50 
88 
25 
17 
27 
20 

33 


56 
52 
1 

5 
24 

4 
2 

12 


57 
50 

63 
80 
36 
40 
67 
57 


4 

1 


4 

4 

3 

20 
33 


56 
43 

IJ 


262 
308 

202 
616 
337 
259 
25 
586 
213 


62 
42 

00 
00 

46 
33 

00 
00 
21 


1.44 
1. 25 

1, 20 
3.89 

1.24 
I. 33 
. 19 
2.08 
1, 50 




3 

19 

7 

6 


4 

4 

3 
5 

5 
3 


11 


14 
14 
9 
9 
27 
15 

16 


Ealing, Drinking Places . . 

Apparel, Accessories. . . . 
Furniiore, Appl.«nce5 . . . 




Other Retail 


9 



Personal and Repair Servii 
Amusement. Recreation an 
Gasoline Stations 

OFFICE USE 

Banks, Savings li Loan Asa 

Professional Services . . 

Manufacturers' Sales 0(fic< 

PUBLIC, SEMl-PUBUC 

Public Buildings t, Servicei 
Organization*, Etc. ■ . ■ 

INDUSTRIAL 

RESIDENTIAL 
Hotels. MoteI« 
Other ■ . ■ 

TOTAL 



95 42 1 74 



300 00 3. 34 



Av. Total 



RETAIL USE 1041 

ReCail Trade Establishments . 966 

Food Stores 9 

Eating. Drinking Places ■ ■ 55 

General Merchandise .... 258 

Apparel, Accessories ... 240 

Furniture. Appliances ... 10) 

Automotive Ill 

Drugstores 82 

Other Retail 88 

Personal and Repair Services . il 
Amusement. Recreation and ■ ■ 

Gasoline Stations 24 

OFFICE USE 4S6 

Banks, Savings and Loan Aaaoc. 172 

Business Services 110 

Professional Services 88 

Private Business Services . . 62 

Manufacturers- Sales Offices 24 

PUBUC, SEMI-PUBUC .... 143 

Public Buildings and Services - I 30 

Organisations, Etc 11 

INDUSTRIAL I 

RESIDENTIAL 6 

Hotels. Motel* 6 
Other . 

TOTALS . - 1647 



Sq. Foot- 
agc/Emp. 



506. 8 
51). 
522.0 
304. 9 
719. I 
497.4 
)79. 3 
589.9 
175, 1 



274.2 
265.6 
259. 7 
318. 7 



86 132 14 



69 17 31 
73 69 27 



14.8 
12.0 
U. Z 
19.0 
7.7 
13.9 
18.0 
2S.0 
10. 6 



72 



NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 

On the basis of the 191 responses from the occupancy survey, 
the total number of employees in Zone A, the core area, is 1657. 
Within the entire study area, there are approximately 3, 800 em- 
ployees. It is interesting to compare the number of establishments 
with the number of employees. The retail use category, which com- 
prises 58 percent of the various establishments in Zone A, employs 
63 percent of the total number of employees. Office use, comprising 
34 percent of the establishments, employs 27 percent of the em- 
ployees. Six percent of the public and semi-public use category em- 
ploys 9 percent of the total number of employees. Residential and 
industrial establishments, comprising 2 percent of the total number 
of establishments, employs 2 percent of the total number of employees 
in Zone A. 

Average floor space per employee is 456. 8 square feet, and 
the general merchandise (department and variety) stores alone show 
an even higher figure of 719 square feet. The lowest amount of floor 
space per employee, 175. 1 square feet, is found in drugstores. All 
other information regarding employees, floor space, number of em- 
ployees who came to work by car, etc. , is found in the following 
tables . 

Occupants were asked to indicate their need for greater space, 
and 28.4 percent, or 53 of the 191 responses, indicated a need for 
more space; and with few exceptions the space required was small. 



RESIDENTS 

Residents of a downtown area and its periphery differ greatly 
from the remainder of the central city and the urban area everywhere 
in America. This may be traced directly to the fact that, histori- 
cally, what is now "downtown" was usually the first settlement in the 
growth of a city, containing many of the oldest and most dilapidated 
dwellings and a good deal of mixed commercial- residential land use. 

Within the study area there are 372 dwelling units occupying 
627,045 square feet of floor area, or 20.4 percent of the total actual 
building space devoted to various activities within the study area. 
There are five hotels and motels within the study area occupying 
60, 654 square feet of building space of 2 percent of the total actual 
building space within the study area. 

Computing an average of 3. 8 persons per dwelling of the total 
372 units, there are approximately 1,415 persons residing within the 
study area. Due to census tract boundaries and Gainesville not being 
under the Standard Metropolitan Area's Census, tabulation was not 
made of age, race, etc. 



73 



jyjL 




; -u. 11 «i i XX. ST 



BEFORE - 1900 


n 


1940- 1969 


1900 - 1919 


1 1 


I960- 


1920 - 1939 







BUILDING AGE 

Gainesville is one of the oldest cities in the State of Florida, 
and a large number of its buildings in the downtown area indicate this 
correlation of the area that comprised the original City of Gainesville 
in 1854. It can be readily seen that the major concentration of the 
oldest buildings built prior to 1900 is around the Alachua County Court 
House Square. All of these buildings provide the major outlet of re- 
tail trade or business within the downtown area. The reason there 
are no buildings west of the Court House Square built prior to the 
1900's is that in 1938 the entire block was demolished by fire. 

Of the 701 buildings within the study area, there were: 58(8. 3%) 
built prior to 1900; 160 (22. 6%) from 1900-19; 309 (44. 2%) from 1920- 
39; 163 (23. 3%) from 1940-59; and 11 (1. 6%) from I960 to date. 



74 




2.1 ANO A80ve 



FLOOR AREA RATIO 

Density of downtown buildings is most easily expressed in 
terms of the ratio of floor area to land. Although there is a re- 
stricted range of values shown on this map, there appears to be a de- 
finite axis of high density around the Alachua County Court House 
Square and a westward development along West University Avenue. 
This may indicate a variety of densities from block to block in the 
southeast area of town. It should be noted that a definite area of com- 
pactness of the highest density has maximum advantages as to walking 
distances to the shopper in the downtown just as the map indicates. 
However, floor area of buildings with the highest density are either 
vacant, used for storage, of have uses that are of a nature not con- 
tributing to the strength of downtow^n. 



75 




^Li±ldl.xvsr CSc»x».«aL±-fc±oaaL 



n 



VERT GOOD 



BUILDING CONDITION 

The grades of building conditions given here correspond to 
four building score ranges based on the scoring system developed for 
this study and from the tax cards of Hunnicutt and Associates, St. 
Petersburg, Florida. These ranges are: 

Very Good 81 to 100 

Good . 61 to 80 

Fair 41 to 60 

Poor to 40 

It should be noted that the building condition score system has 
emphasis placed on the age, type construction, and structural system 
more than on aesthetic qualities. However, the latter was taken into 
consideration for the scoring system. 



76 













'i'iVivrrr>'i.tVj 



It can be seen that, while the largest number of buildings in 
fair or poor condition are found in the downtown fringe area, there 
are also a very substantial number of buildings well within the retail 
core that are in poor conditions. Approximately 78 percent of the total 
net space is in fair or poor condition in the retail shopping area of 
downtown. 



Of the 701 buildings within the study area, there are: 87, or 
12. 4 percent, very good; 66, or 9. 2 percent, good; 183, or 26. 2 per — 
cent, fair; and 365, or 52. 2 percent, poor. 



77 




""ITa. C3 auaci. C5 3r 



VACANCY 

This map indicates no definite area where problems relating to 
vacancy are great. However, the major concentration of vacant 
buildings is in the central retail area with the highest vacancy per 
square foot of the total floor area. With known vacancies of certain 
business establishments to come about in the near future, the core 
area of downtown will have even a greater vacancy of floor area. 

An analysis of all vacancies discloses that 5 percent of the 
square footage devoted to various activities is vacant, 5. 4 percent of 
all the ground floor area is vacant, and 6. 1 percent of the total 
floor area within the study area is vacant. In studying vacancies by 
existing building use points to a preference, on the part of downtown 
establishments, for space in the single-use building, designed for a 
specific purpose. 



TRAVEL TO DOWNTOWN 

Unfortunately, little data is available regarding traveJL to the 
Downtown Gainesville central business district than exists for the 
Gainesville area as a whole. The Traffic and Planning Division of the 
Florida State Road Department established a cordon count around the 
city where 14 interview stations were placed. At each station, inter- 
views were recorded during the 8 hours of heaviest traffic movemenl^ 
7:00 A. M. to 11:00 A. M. and 2:00 P. M. to 6:00 P. M. The most 
recent cordon count was conducted during the fall of I960 for 24 
hours. From this survey, the I960 movements of all vehicles be- 
tween the external stations at the cordon line and the different areas 
of the city showed that the central business area is the largest trip 
generator within the city, with 6, 587 trips either beginning or ending 
in this central area. Second is the University proper and the J. Hil- 
lis Miller Health Center, and third, the area from Northwest 6th 
Street to North Main Street between Northwest 8th Avenue and North- 
west l6th Avenue. In a separate survey conducted on the University 
of Florida, the Traffic Study, showed that the central business 
district involved the highest traffic generator from the University 
students. From the Greater Gainesville area, the central business 
has the greatest attraction. 

THROUGH TRAFFIC 

A small percentage of traffic that enters the downtown area 
passes on through without stopping. The State Road Department's 
study conducted in I960, indicated that of the total number of trips 
recorded at the cordon line, 89 percent were area trips and 11 per- 
cent (4, 113 trips) were through trips. 

It should be pointed out that the greatest individual movement 
of trucks within the cordon line was concerned with the central busi- 
ness district. 

The volume of through traffic is not significant over a twenty- 
four-hour period as compared with the area and local trips, using the 
same streets during the same period. All in all, however, through 
traffic is not a great problem with the downtown area. 

TRAFFIC VOLUME 

In general, traffic volume in and around urban areas reaches 
a minimum on its periphery or corporate limits and increases to a 
maximum as the central business district is approached. This gen- 
erally can be observed in Gainesville, except the maximum traffic 
volumes were not observed in the central core. The greatest traffic 



79 



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'^iPS (VOLUME I 



activity is centered around the University, especially near the inter- 
section of University Avenue and West 13th Street. This indicates the 
importance of the University as a traffic generator and as a major 
economic contributor to the City. 



The traffic volumes shown on the flow map are the average 
i960, 24-hour volumes. These volumes do not remain constant. 
Variations are found during the hours of the day, days of the week, 
and seasons of the year. It is reasonable to expect the peak seasons 
of vehicular movement to occur during the period that the University 
is oper.ating during the regular school year. With the new school year 
(tri-mester) plan at the University, a more even traffic movement 
is expected. 



80 



TRIP PURPOSE 

Description of the purpose of the travel to downtown Gaines- 
ville should be obtained only from traffic research obtained in the 
Gainesville area. However, this information does not exist. The 
figures presented below is descriptive of the purpose of travel to the 
central core in a number of cities. Because of the particular condi- 
tions existing in the downtown Gainesville area, the data cannot be 
used to explain or analyze Gainesville (it cannot, for example, be 
used to determine the amount and kind of parking facilities required). 
It is presented only to convey some knowledge and guidance about the 
generalities of the situation. 

Approximate Purpose of CBD Bound Travel 

Work 40.0% 

Business 15.0% 

Shopping 12.5% 

All Other 32.5% 

Source: Origin and Destination Survey Data for United States 

Cities; available from Bureau of Public Roads. 

From information of the number of activities (retail and 
wholesale, professional and personal services, governmental, etc.) 
located within the downtown area and in correlation to the approxi- 
mate purpose of CBD bound travel to work, the paradox that downtown 
will never die, but will only deteriorate to oblivion is based on this 
fact. The number of people that work downtown and shop there is 
very significant in its foundation. However, if retail sales are de- 
voted to this group without creating greater attractions for the entire 
urban area, only one direction is inevitable. 

TRAVEL TIME 

The majority of streets and highways in the Gainesville urban 
area are products of decades of urban development. Few have been 
laid out and constructed after the post-^war boom of motor vehicle use. 
Travel conditions for motor vehicles in the Gainesville area are 
below average and will inevitably reach a critical point in the down- 
town area within-the next fifteen years. This is a product of increase 
in traffic volume, the efficiency of streets which has exceeded fifteen 
years' age, and that the street system cannot and will not ever naeet 
the travel characteristics of the 20th century automobile. 

The time contour map represents travel time intervals of one 
minute reckoned from the origin at Main Street and University Ave- 



81 




'±xxx< 



do: 



I960 Contours In Minute's 
' 19S0 Contours In MInutos 



nue. The lateral displacement indicates the distance that could be 
traveled by the average driver from the origin during the various 
time intervals. Where the time contours are closely spaced is in the 
CBD, travel is slow and the driver hindered by congestion, traffic 
signals, turning maneuvers, etc. 

In the State Road Department's Traffic Study, a comparison 
was made between the 1950 - I960 time contour map. The map indi- 
cates, of the two time contours shown, that no appreciable gain in 
efficiency was noted; although, in the past decade approximately 
22 miles of street improvements costing about $3, 500, 000 has been 
accomplished in the Gainesville area by the use of State and Federal 
funds. However, the growth in traffic demand has equaled or 
exceeded the increase in efficiency of the State Routes and city 
streets even with these large expenditures. 



82 



Along West University Avenue from the University of Florida 
to Main Street an average speed of about 12 miles per hour was ob- 
served. This is a slow speed to begin with, and yet it involves only 
the time of the trips spent in moving- -not the time required to park 
the car and walk to the final destination. In Gainesville, this total 
time lapse would reduce this average speed from the University to the 
downtown area by one-third, or an average speed of 8 miles per hour. 

TIME -DISTANCE FACTORS 

Today's modern traveler is not so much concerned about dis- 
tance as time. That is, how many miles away a factory is, a shop, 
or a city does not matter if the destination can be reached quickly. 
If a driver desires to only spend twenty minutes to a destination, 
that twenty minutes on the present roads, with many intersections, 
traffic congestion, stop lights, might not be very far. But on a lim- 
ited access highway or expressway, twenty minutes of travel covers 
a lot of ground. 

The i960 Traffic Study of the Florida State Road Department 
indicated the movements of all vehicles between different areas of 
the city. As previously mentioned, the central business district is 
the largest trip generator; second is the University proper and the J. 
Hillis Miller Health Center; and third, the area from Northwest 6th 
Street to North Main Street between Northwest 8th Avenue and North- 
west 1 6th Avenue. It is reasonable to expect that these three sepa- 
rated areas with their expansion and growth with related activities 
will eventually have to have a major connecting link if their status as 
the major economic contributors are sustained in the future. Even 
with thoroughfares and collector streets presently proposed and being 
constructed, many will reach their rated capacity in moving traffic 
within the next fifteen years. 

Interstate 75, west of Gainesville, will alleviate little if any 
of the traffic problems of the City of Gainesville other than the through 
traffic on Northwest 13th Street (U. S. 441). 

With the future expansion of Gainesville's urban area, distance 
to be traveled will increase with the desire to decrease travel time. 
This cannot be achieved without a limited access thoroughfare system. 
Gainesville is not ready for such a system, but planning for its future 
growth should be borne in mind. 



83 




OFF-STREET PARKING FACILITIES 

There were 35 off-street parking facilities within the study- 
area during the period in January when the field work was conducted. 
Total capacity in the 35 off-street facilities was 1,606 spaces. Of 
this number, 917 in 27 facilities were for private use (includes lots 
designated for customers only). This reduced the total number of 
public parking facilities to eight within the area and a total of 689 
spaces available to the public. It should be noted that public parking 
includes those bank lots where rates for parking are established after 
banking hours, or customer parking facilities where rates may be 
paid on an hourly basis. Six of the parking facilities are attendant 
operated with the customer or patron parking the automobile. Within 
the study area, the average square footage per lot is 17, 590 square 



84 




:±8-t>l: 



G-ci.z*'b 



i.x>^±xs.Br ^Z 



1 HR 'M' OS/HR. 

2 HR. W .05/HR. 



feet. The average space per car is 383. 3 square feet, which indi- 
cates the amount of inefficiency in parking layout by irregular shaped 
lots, raaneuvering space, etc. Parking lots, both private and com- 
mercial, comprise 6. 8 percent of the total area of land, including 
rights-of-way (28. 6 percent), of the study area. 

CURB PARKING SPACES 

In a d d i t i o n to the 1,606 off-street spaces, there are 521 
metered spaces either of a one- or two-hour limit. In a breakdown 
of metered curb spaces versus off-street parking, it was found that 
the curb spaces represent 24. 5 percent of the gross total within the 
area studied and that off-street spaces total 75. 5 percent. This does 
not include the on- street parking permitted on many of the outlying 
streets from the central area. 



85 



Within Zone A, which comprises the retail center of the study- 
area (see page 64), there are a total of 1, 647 employees to a total of 
639 spaces in 1 3 off-street parking facilities and 472 metered curb 
spaces. This gives a gross total of 1,111 parking spaces. Of this 
total, approximately 175 spaces of the off-street parking facilities 
are devoted strictly to employee parking, leaving 946 parking spaces 
in either off-street parking facilities or metered curb spaces. All 
other streets within Zone A either prohibit parking or are of such a 
time duration that would prohibit employee parking (15 minutes). 

From the Occupancy Survey conducted within Zone A, it was 
indicated that 91 percent of the employees drive their cars to work. 
This would require approximately 1,500 parking spaces within the 
downtown area for employee parking when only 946 spaces are avail- 
able. The 946 parking spaces are or should be devoted to customer 
parking in consideration of walking distance, etc. This readily 
accounts for the fact of "meter-feeding" of employees on curb spaces 
within the area and that streets within the outlying areas are used for 
vehicular parking where permitted. Although several of the municipal 
lots are designed in the rate schedules for all-day parkers, they are 
not used to their practical capacity. Parking for employees within the 
downtown area has created, to a great extent, the parking problem 
that exists today. 

PARKING RATES CHARGED 

Studies of parking fees indicate that those fees charged in the 
downtown Gaine sville area are not unusual. They are, of course, 
lower than parking fees charged in larger cities where the land and 
parking space are at a greater premium. 

Of the 521 on-street metered spaces, 349 are on a one-hour 
limit at 5 cents per hour, and the remaining 172 are on a two-hour 
limit at 5 cents per hour. Off-street parking lots have 48 meters at 
5 cents per hour (10-hour limit), and 139 meters at 5 cents per two- 
hours (10-hour limit). The average price per h o u r on parking in 
commercial lots is eleven cents per hour. The average price during 
a 10-hour period is $1.14. Parking rates after bank hours ranged 
from three and one -half cents to twenty-five cents per hour. 



86 



I 




Downtown Gainesville 
Development Plan 



INTRODUCTION 

Today's central cities have created high land values and busi- 
ness convenience by congestion, high density, and centrality. This 
is the core of transit lines and highways which enabled the city to 
sprawl to the suburbs, but also insured that it remain as the central 
core. To disperse this congestion of the central area would be "sui- 
cidal". 

The role of downtown as a center of greater Gainesville de- 
pends in large part on how well it maintains its connections with the 
rest of the area. This applies particularly to retail functions of 
downtown because shopping facilities can easily move to new loca- 
tions. Other functions of downtown are vulnerable. Downtown Gain- 
esville must, if it wishes to retain and foster economic prosperity, 
substantially improve its accessibility from all parts of the regions. 
It must make itself an area that can easily be reached with comfort 
and convenience. The alternative for the shopper is either to go to 
downtown Gainesville with relative ease or not go at all. 



Design Objectives 



5jC Downtown Gainesville is changing in types of uses. Prior to 
the coming prominance of the automobile, the uncrowded center and 
circulation within it was initially no problem. This fact was estab- 
lished in the discussion of the history of Gainesville. Gainesville, in 
1854, was laid out for the "horse and buggy" days, with the remaining 
physical growth of Gainesville stemming from this core (see page 
28). One of the most striking defects in the city's growth today has 
been the haphazard pattern of streets which has resulted from uncon- 
trolled and unrelating subdividing stemming from the original city of 
1854 with little attention being given to alignment with streets of ear- 
lier subdivisions and street widths. Downtown Gainesville's existing 
street pattern cannot nor will not meet in any way the twentieth cen- 
tury automobile. The rapid increase in the volume of traffic and the 
increase in travel time by traffic signals, congestion, and turning 
movements makes the downtown area street system obsolete. The 
increasing size of the primary retail trade area affords a still 
greater opportunity in serving the trade areas of Alachua County and 
surrounding counties with "shopper goods". Downtown Gainesville 
provides unique services (see Occupancy, page 64) which can be sup- 
ported by a large tributary area and which should not be dispersed to 
outlying shopping centers. 



89 



5fC Downtown Gainesville now depends primarily on major traffic 
access arteries and parking facilities. Employees, shoppers and 
clients come by automobile and must be served. It appears that 
downtown's role within its trading area is determined by travel time 
and terminal capacity rather than distance. Consequently, traffic 
congestion and lack of parking facilities within a reasonable walking 
distance from the retail and service outlets within the downtown area 
tend to encourage competition elsewhere and conversion of land uses. 
This has comnaenced within the past two years in downtown Gaines- 
ville. 

5jj The very interdependence of downtown Gainesville on a circu- 
lation system and parking facilities necessitates separation of vehic- 
ular traffic and parking by types. To achieve maximum utilization of 
the available resources, the through traffic should be separated from 
purely local traffic and fast turnover; short-time parking facilities 
should be provided in addition to parking areas serving the all-day 
parkers. If parking efficiency is to be achieved, it is also necessary 
to separate land uses such as retail, wholesale, office, etc. , into 
functional areas. 

5{C The transportation revolution has changed the function of our 
streets . No longer can a single right-of-way be all things at all times 
for all purposes. Access streets should provide for the free and 
reasonable uninterrupted flow of traffic. These streets should have a 
minimum number of points of friction and conflict. Ideally, there 
should be no on-street parking; moving and stopped vehicles do not 
mix. The arterial streets should serve as boundaries of land use, 
separating the commercial from institutional and other areas. Fast 
movement, heavy traffic volumes and right-of-way widths tend to 
create barriers to pedestrian traffic and therefore land use on one 
side of a major thoroughfare should be kept independent of the devel- 
opment on the other side. With the existing street pattern and land 
use, only conapromises can be attained in this respect. 

^ The maximum potential of downtown Gainesville is limited by 
the sum total of people conveyed by mass transit and automobiles. 
Everything possible should be done for both. Automobiles need free 
access and added terminal facilities (parking) directly related to 
business space. Nobody sells anything to a moving automobile, and 
the easy conversion of a motorist into a pedestrian-shopper is of ut- 
most importance. 

^ The appearance of downtown Gainesville must be good. With 
respect to shopping facilities, attractiveness is only in part depend- 
ent upon the prosperity of the stores. Violent signs mean a desperate 
need for business and give a general impression of deteriorating 
property values. The neglected appearance of an area indicates a 
lack of self-respect. Neither of these ideas are good to plant in the 
minds of the prospective customer or a new outside investor. 



90 



1 



goals: 



TO MAXIMIZE THE ACCESSIBILITY FROM 
ALL POINTS IN ITS REGION 

TO SEPARATE TRAFFIC AS MUCH AS 
PRACTICALLY POSSIBLE INTO ITS 
FUNCTIONAL PARTS 

TO USE THE EXISTING STREET SYSTEM 
TO ITS FULLEST EXTENT 

TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE LONG- AND 
SHORT-TERM PARKING FOR WORKERS, 
VISITORS, AND SHOPPERS 



Circulation 



I 



91 




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PROPOSED THOROUGHFARE SYSTEM 

To improve accessibility of downtown Gainesville from other 
areas of the city is establishing certain existing or proposed streets 
either to be highways, thoroughfares, or collector streets. From 
the Churchill report on A Master Guide Plan for Gainesville, 1950, 
the 1950 Traffic and Parking Study, by The State Road Department, 
the i960 Traffic Study - Greater Gainesville, by The State Road De- 
partment, and the I960 Major Thoroughfare Plan, by DeWitt McGee 
and Associates, a proposed thoroughfare plan has been established 
to provide access to and from the downtown area. No alterations 
have been made that would hinder one or any of these major systems. 
They are utilized to the fullest extent in the downtown plan. With the 
downtown area being the largest trip generator from the greater 
Gainesville area and the University of Florida, major connecting 
links are of paramount importance. 



93 



Most of the streets shown on the Proposed Thoroughfare Map 
are included in the Zoning Ordinance, adopted June of 1962, for re- 
servation of future rights-of-way and building setbacks. 



STREET PROPOSALS 

From an analysis of existing and projected vehicular traffic, 
the downtown area of Gainesville with its existing pattern of a two- 
hundred-foot block-grid system, laid out in 1854, will not sufficiently 
handle future traffic with parking, traffic signals, and turning move- 
ments. The less congestion and delay, the more traffic a street can 
carry, because the traffic is moving faster. 



There are several ways to improve traffic speed on existing 
streets. 

(1) A roadway of given width will carry more traf- 

fic if one -"way. 



(2) Make the entire width of the street available for 

moving traffic by prohibiting any p a r k i n g or 
loading on the street. 



(3) Progressive signalization can be used to keep 

traffic movement continuous on the main streets 
within a typical system of a gridiron street pat- 
tern. 



(4) Direct all through traffic around the central 

core area so the street system will only ac- 
comodate local traffic. 



(5) Differentiation should be made of traffic by 

type, with manuevering space reserved for 
transit vehicles and truck traffic, apart from 
private vehicles. Some streets may be closed 
off for pedestrians. 



(6) Encourage use of public transit rather than 

private cars. 



94 




xi.a.l3r s ± 



(7) The use of traffic control and zoning regulation 

to encourage more intensive use of a compact 
central core served by fast vertical transport- 
ation. 

From the above seven items, a street plan is proposed using 
the existing street system to its fullest extent on the principle of the 
"super-block" to eliminate points of conflict at intersections. It 
should be pointed out that to "one-way" street direction, or to remove 
off-street parking, would not in itself increase street capacity, for 
the points of conflict where delay stems from still remain. Many 
intersections have to be eliminated. The Street Analysis Plan indi- 
cates the streets to be improved, closed, devoted only to service, 
and converted to pedestrian ways. The streets to be closed comprise 
3.85 acres; pedestrian ways, 4.77 acres; service streets, 6.47 acres; 
and all others to be improved or remain as they exist. 



95 





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STREETS 

Within the study area, 2, 576, 802 square feet, or 59.38 acres, 
are devoted to rights-of-way, which comprise 28.6 percent of the 
land within the study area. Although the amount of land devoted to 
streets is high, the design or layout of the street pattern with insuf- 
ficient widths causes congestion. The proposed street pattern readily 
indicates the reduction of points of conflict (intersections). These 
comparative maps show quite well how the new street system has 
been s i m p 1 i f i e d, i.e., many of the streets removed by creating 
super-blocks. With the minor interior streets of these areas gone, 
and the future on-street parking eliminated, the entire flow of vehicles 
will be speeded up as needless turning movements are eliminated. 



96 




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STREET DIRECTIONS 

The two maps for existing and proposed street direction com- 
pare the direction of traffic on streets today and the proposed street 
pattern. In most instances, the flow pattern is broken down into 
major and minor movements as shown by the different arrow sizes. 
Most of the existing streets have been incorporated into the proposed 
circulation system, and the direction of these streets have, where 
possible, been kept the same. The only exceptions are the connecting 
links made on North Second Avenue and North Fourth Avenue to Fifth 
Avenue, both being the result of poor subdivision practices. West 
Sixth Street is proposed as a two-way directional flow around the 
existing Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. This proposal is in no way a 
final sblution to the demand of a north-south access in the continua- 
tion of West Sixth Street. It is based on the idea of the railroad's re- 
location or abandonment. 



98 




»d. JS'fcx^^^'fc ^3±x*^c3'fc loaa.] 



1 iiiti • 



^AMMM 



Parking 



INTRODUCTION 

Accepting the fact that many additional parking spaces are 
vital to the functional and economic prosperity of downtown Gaines- 
ville, the parking issue becomes one of what kind of facilities; where 
shall they be located; and how shall they be financed and operated. 
However, parking is a problem today within the downtown area be- 
cause of inadequate employee parking, the idea of parking within 
thirty feet of a destination, and "meter-feeding" by employees. With 
the displacement of many curb-spaces that exist today by the proposed 
street plan, off-street parking facilities will have to be provided. 
Since the cut-off date of the tabulation of off-street parking facilities, 
the City of Gainesville has provided several parking areas which are 
used presently at less than 30 percent of their capacity. 

Downtown Gainesville is relatively compact. There are too 
sites of adequate size, shape, and location--at a reasonable cost--for 
indiscriminate selections. This does not mean that land on the 
fringes of downtown cannot be utilized effectively for solving part of 
the parking problems. It is prop^osed that the less costly land on the 
fringes of the commercial area be used to meet the needs of the all- 
day parker and closer facilities within downtown used for the short- 
term parker. 

There are a number of factors discussed in the following 
paragraphs that guide the selection of sites for off-street parking 
facilities to meet the anticipated demand of the future. 



DISTRIBUTION 

Most important to a successful parking system is that both 
private and public parking facilities be considered as a "system" de- 
signed to serve all sections of downtown. They must be distributed 
throughout the area not only to provide service to all property but to 
help maintain an even distribution of traffic flow. Concentration of 
parking must be avoided. In most cases, the pattern of parking faci- 
lities should consist of a ring of facilities surrounding the very center 
of retail and commercial activities. In this approach, the highest 
land costs can be avoided, reasonable distribution maintained, and 
service made available for vehicles approaching from any direction. 



100 



ACCESSIBILITY 

The system of off-street parking facilities is in fact a continu- 
ation of the entire automobile system consisting of highways, streets 
and parking. Its functions are dependent on each other. Each of 
these elements must be designed with reference to the capacity and 
workability of the others. Each parking facility should have entrances 
and exits on high-capacity streets. Parking facilities to be created 
for the short-term parker should have convenient and safe access to 
areas of final destination. The Downtown Development Plan has re- 
commended pedestrian malls in creation of super-blocks through the 
retail area. Those parking facilities designed for the shopper should 
be provided visual contact with the pedestrian mall if at all possible. 
This has. been achieved in most instances in the proposed plan. 

WALKING DISTANCES 

The all-day parker has been found willing to walk much longer 
distances than the short-term parker. In fact, in any but a large city, 
500 feet should probably be considered the maximum distance which a 
motorist is willing to walk from parking place to destination. In the 
proposed parking plan, all lots will be well within the distance to the 
center of the retail core. How near is near from the motorist's 
point of view will depend greatly upon the size of the city under con- 
sideration. The smaller the city, the closer the motorist expects to 
park to his destination. Gainesville is presently in a transition 
period from a small to a large city- -and people's attitudes toward 
parking are failing to recognize and accept this metamorphosis. 



TYPE OF PARKING FACILITY 

The need for off-street parking is not great today, but will be 
by the proposed displacement of on-street parking spaces, by pedes- 
trian malls, and the growth of the downtown area. Since there are 
few available sites (location, access, etc.), downtown Gainesville 
must rely upon multi-level parking structures in the future. Two 
basic types of structures are available; the three- or four-level 
garage and the six- to ten-level elevator garage. Ramp garages of 
les s than three levels can be constructed, but rarely does this fully 
utilize the land nor justify the land or foundation construction costs. 
The elevator system in garage construction is limited in height by the 
effectiveness of the elevators. Each type of garage has its advantages 
and disadvantages. 



101 



(1) Land Consumption: The elevator garage con- 
sumes much land for car space and can be con- 
structed on various types of rectangular sites 
because of its manner of operation. The ramp 
garage requires much larger sites, often un- 
available in downtown areas. 

(2) Land and Construction Costs: The elevator 
garage is less expensive to construct on a per 
car basis because of the use of vertical storage. 
The elevator garage can cost between ten and 
twenty percent less per car space than the ramp 
garage, but soil conditions and "dressing up" 
the structure can neutralize these cost differ- 
entials. 

(3) Maintenance: The ramp garage will prove to 
be less expensive to maintain. The elevator 
garage contains many moving parts that require 
constant service and in-time replacement. 

(4) Operational Costs: The ramp garage, espe- 
cially if it features a self -park operation, will 
require fewer personnel; and will, therefore, 
result in lower operational costs. 

(5) Method of Operation: The flexibility of self- 
park operation is the major advantage of a 
ramp garage. It has been shown in surveys 
that people prefer to park their own cars rather 
than wait for an attendant to bring them down 
from some upper level. 



1 



The s election of a garage depends upon the location, the land | 

available, the cost of land, and the type of parking to be encouraged, 
A site close to the retail area, catering almost exclusively to shop- 
pers and personal business trips that will create a steady ingress and 
egress flow, can be satisfactorily served by an elevator garage. 
However, a site with more land available at reasonable costs, one 
that will attract a share of all-day and short-term parkers who will 
attempt to leave the garage at the same time, should contain a ramp 
garage. 



102 



PARKING POLICY 

The justification for governraental participation and subsidy 
in downtown off-street parking facilities is identical to the justifica- 
tion for governmental participation in the construction of streets, 
highways, and expressways. The parking garage is no less a part of 
the circulation system than any of the other elements. It is true that 
private investment has entered into the field of parking facility invest- 
ments simply because it is profitable and possible. But this is not 
assurance that private investment has created adequate parking 
spaces nor created the most desirable system capable or fully cap- 
italizing the governmental investment in street and highways. Even 
though off-street parking facilities number thirty-five within the study 
area, the quantity in no way indicates quality in terms of location, 
efficiency, etc. Many of these parking facilities are a handicap to 
circulation on the local street system. 

The economic or financial return of parking facilities is nauch 
more than the collections from parking fees. The rationale, that a 
garage that pays for itself through the collection of fees is a success- 
ful garage is not necessarily true. The true return is the amount of 
additional developinent that occurs because of each additional space 
provided. The true evaluation must answer the question: "What is 
the success of the entire governmental i n v e s t m e n t in all street, 
parking, and in many cities, mass transportation?" 



* -X- * -X- * 



103 



\5gUI_ 




iXJL 



PROPOSALS 

All potential parking sites in the downtown area have been 
carefully reviewed. Four sites have been selected as ramp garages 
for the future within convenient "walking distance for employees and 
of Future Parking, the four sites are indicated as A, B, C, and D. 
It is proposed that Lot B, which is now the present site of Municipal 
Lot No. 1 on South Main Street and Southwest Second Avenue, be 
converted to a ramp garage. Lot C, which is partially used for 
parking, be converted to a split-level ramp garage for employees and 
short-term parking in conjunction with the proposed site of the Mu- 
nicipal Building. Lot D be acquired in conjunction to the proposed 
Munici'pal Library for short-term parking and library use. Lot A be 
acquired for a future ramp garage, connected by pedestrian ways (see 
Municipal Parking Lot, page 106). The approximate total capacity of 
the proposed four ramp garages is 1500 vehicular parking spaces. 



104 



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It might seem to the observer that in comparison to the 
existing and future parking, that a great deal of land is devoted to off- 
street parking. However, if all buildings in the future, outside the 
retail core area, are to meet the requirements of zoning in the off- 
street parking requirement, this is the ratio to achieve in building 
area to parking area. Notice the grouping of buildings facing major 
streets with the parking area and service access in the center. 

The proposed future parking is based on the fact of the ever- 
increasing use of the private automobile, even with the encouraged 
use of mass transit facilities. The systematic and fully integrated 
program for parking in the downtown area, which has been outlined 
here, should be the city's answer in meeting the posed demand by 
employees and shoppers in the continued use of the private auto- 
mobile. 



105 



N.W. 3nd AVi 




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UNIVISSITY AVE 



EXISTING AREA PLAN 



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W. UNIVEtSITT AVI 



PROPOSED MUNICIPAL PARKING LOT 

AND 

DEVELOPMENT PLAN 



MUNICIPAL PARKING LOT 

The Municipal Parking Lot A, as shown on the previous page, 
is proposed as a ramp parking garage (capacity 310 cars). The 
above map indicates a surface lot (capacity 90 cars) with a circulation 
system that would solve the traffic congestion backing up on North- 
west Second Avenue and Northwest First Street from the Florida 
National Bank drive-in windows, by displacing this within the parking 
facility. The eventual construction of a ramp garage facility would 
still permit this circulation. 

Northwest First Street between Northwest First Avenue and 
Northwest Second Avenue is proposed to be officially vacated and to 
remain as circulation for the First National Bank of Gainesville. 
Service access is taken into account for the First National Bank and 
Woolw'orth's at the same locations as they presently exist. From 
this municipal ramp garage, pedestrian circulation will be easily 
accessible. 



106 



goals: 



TO STRENGTHEN MASS TRANSPORTA- 
TION FACILITIES IN EVERY POSSIBLE 
WAY 

TO PROVIDE A LOCATION FOR BUS TER- 
MINALS WITH EASY CONNECTIONS TO 
AND FROM THE INTERSTATE SYSTEM 
AND THOROUGHFARES 

TO RECOMMEND THAT AN ADVISORY 
GROUP BE FORMED ON AS REGIONAL 
BASIS TO CHART A POSITIVE LONG- 
RANGE TRANSIT PROGRAM 



Transportation 



107 




^ x>m ±xxct.X 



±-t.& 



INTERSTATE BUS TERMINAL 

Increasing rates for railroad passenger service, and an ex- 
panding network of expressways in many urban areas have combined 
to boost the importance of inter-city bus service in the transportation 
system. The future connections between cities in Florida by the com- 
pletion of the interstate system in providing transportation for 
university students will play an important role indirectly to the 
strength of downtown. 

The present terminal facilities located within the study area 
are in many respects entirely inadequate. Furthermore, the buses 
that enter and exit conflict with local traffic on busy streets. Pro- 
posals for the general location of these terminals are shown on the 
above map, one of which has been established recently (Trailways 
Bus Line). It is of importance that these terminals be located in 



108 



close proximity to the University of Florida and downtown Gainesville 
with adequate access on a major local street system (NW 8th Avenue) 
connecting with the interstate system. 

TRANSIT 

A strong mass transit system is necessary to the well-being 
of the downtown area. That buses transport more people per square 
foot of vehicular space than automobiles do is well known and often 
quoted. However, the trend toward automobile travel continues, and 
a reversal is not yet visible. The City of Gainesville and its urban 
area are not presently showing an interest in the development of 
transit facilities mainly due to conditions of the present facilities in 
equipment, service, and schedules. 

It has been found in recent studies that loop routes prove to be 
more economical than through routes. But, if a practical through- 
routing plan can be developed for even a portion of the buses in down- 
town Gainesville, it would have the following advantages: 

-provide for a much greater distribution of loading and 
unloading, and, therefore, greater passenger conven- 
ience; 

-materially reduce turning movements and general 
traffic congestion; 

-provide through service in the downtown area and en- 
courage short-haul riding; and 

-afford direct transfer points with practically all routes 
at intersections. 

It has been pointed out previously the importance of the 
University in the economy of the downtown area. Therefore, a loop 
transit schedule connecting the two areas would be of benefit to the 
downtown area with regard to its retail sales and in alleviating the 
heavy east-west movement of traffic on the local street system. 

Even though it may be hard to grasp the function and advan- 
tages of transit facilities today, the future of downtown Gainesville 
will depend a great deal on this system. It is recommended that an 
advisory group be formed on a greater Gainesville basis to chart a 
positive long-range mass transit program. 



109 




THE RAILROAD 

The contribution of the railroad in the history of Gainesville 
made this city what it is today. This has to be recognized. However, 
it must also be recognized what the railroad's future is and accept 
the fact. 

It is obvious that moving the railroad from Northwest Sixth 
Street would have a tremendous significance fcr downtown Gainesville. 
It makes possible the improvement of West Sixth Street (see Major 
Thoroughfare Plan, page 93), and improves access for the interstate 
bus terminals. It truly would be a new face for the downtown area in 
reaching functional, economical and phychological results. 



110 



goals: 



• TO SEPARATE LAND USES INTO FUNC- 
TIONAL GROUPINGS 

• TO ADD THOSE USES WHICH WILL MAKE 
DOWNTOWN GAINESVILLE A STRONG 
REGIONAL CENTER, AND TO RELOCATE 
THOSE USES PRESENTLY EXISTING 
WHICH DETRACT FROM THIS ROLE 



Land Use 



111 



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LAND USE 

As the above map indicates, there is little coordinated land 
use by different type activities. This directly reveals the problem of 
"legitimate" downtown interests (see page 3, OBJECTIVES) that be- 
long or do not have a place downtown. Of the 207. 8 acres within the 
study area: 6. 1 percent is devoted to industrial use; 16. 8 percent to 
commercial activities; 33. 1 percent to residential space; 6. 8 percent 
to designated public parking; 8. 6 percent to public and semi-public 
uses; and 28. 6 percent to street rights-of-way. 



112 




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mSIDINTIAl 


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mSi'utuc 


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^^1 PARKING 


■■CENTIIAL BUSINESS 



The major differences bet'ween the existing and proposed land 
use can be readily seen. The Northwest sector of the study area is 
proposed as an urban renewal area with the connecting links of North- 
west Second Avenue and Northwest Fifth Avenue. The only area to be 
conserved for residential use is the existing northeast corner of the 
study area that extends northward along Sweetwater Branch. All 
other land is proposed as commercial use in relation to the proposed 
improvement of many streets in the circulation plan. There is estab- 
lished in the land use category a special area of the downtown core 
which is the retail center abutting or contiguous to the proposed pe- 
destrian malls and ramp garage parking facilities. 



113 




ZONING 

The above map indicates the various zoning classifications as 
they presently exist under the Zoning Ordinance, Ordinance No. 1090, 
adopted June 1962 and as amended. There are numerous existing 
classifications that will not facilitate the proposed land use plan for 
the orderly development of downtown Gainesville. The proposed 
zoning is shown on the following page. 

It is proposed that amendments be made to the existing BR-1 
(Central Business District) classification providing for approval by 
the City Plan Board for architectural character, service access, and 
for improvements abutting pedestrian malls. The importance of "co- 
ordination" among private enterprise located within this district that 
must be maintained for an effective and functional retail center can- 
not be over-emphasized. 



114 




It is recommended that amendments be made to Public and 
Semi-Public Uses in Ordinance 1090, and that properties be zoned 
that are owned by any government or governmental agency, board, 
commission, authority, or public body. 

It is recommended that amendments and additions be made to 
the Sign Ordinance, Ordinance No. 1089, for signs located within 
the Central Business District (BR-1). In fact, consideration should 
be given to sign regulations on all properties located within the study 
area by an advisory group representative of merchants within tiie 
area. 



115 



I 



goals: 



TO GIVE THESE GOVERNMENTAI. SER- 
VICES A MORE EFFECTIVE VISUAE RE- 
LATIONSHIP TO DOWNTOWN 

TO STRENGTHEN THOSE CULTUR-\E AND 
GOVERNMENTAE SERVICES WHICH BENE- 
FIT THE ENTIRE URBAN AREA, BUT 
WHICH CAN ONLY BE SUPPORTED IN THE 
URBAN CENTER 

TO PROVIDE A SEPARATE AND COMPACT 
USE FOR THESE USES 

TO PROVIDE, IN THE DESIGN OF THE 
CIVIC BUILDINGS AND OPEN SPACES, A 
FOCAL POINT FOR AESTHETIC AND 
CIVIC PRIDE 



! Civic Center 



k 



117 



CIVIC CENTER 

The downtown plan provides a separate area for all major 
uses- -retail, office, transportation, and housing. Government, one 
of the most stable and important functions of an urban core, should 
be no exception; and this is the basis for the planned complex of the 
Civic Center. Civic centers have become a popular theme. Nearly 
every city has planned for its Civic Center Plan- -open space land- 
scaped in the fashion, fountains about the plaza, gardens, etc. The 
basic principle of organization in grouping buildings of a govern- 
mental nature is sound. 

However, the idea of a plan of establishing a Civic Center for 
the City of Gainesville cannot be achieved, since the new construction 
of the Alachua County Court House and the site of the New Federal 
Building have been established. It could have been attained a decade 
ago with foresight and planning. 



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N.I. !•• ST 



EXISTING AREA PLAN 



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PROPOSED MUNICIPAL BUILDING 

AND 

DEVELOPMENT PLAN 



IKEXTlJIirXG: 



ixt: 



118 




MUNICIPAL BUILDING 

The site of the Municipal Building is proposed within the sanne 
block as the existing Municipal Building. The above map indicates 
the existing and proposed plan connected with the Alachua County- 
Court House by a pedestrian mall (Northeast First Street). Northeast 
First Avenue is proposed to be closed so that the super-block may be 
planned as an integral unit. The location is within walking distance 
of the office centers existing on Northeast First Street and the pro- 
posed office center along Northeast Second Avenue. Immediately- 
east of the site of the Municipal Building a four-level split-ramp 
garage is proposed for employee and shopper parking (see Future 
Parking, page 105). 

The perspective of the Municipal Building indicates the general 
layout of the complex. This in no way dictates the architectural 
character of 'the building complex. However, it is emphasized that 
the structure go "up" to form a spacial relationship in building mass 
to open areas created by the pedestrian mall. 



119 



Ttrics 



zur 



Perspective 
Looking South 




MUNICIPAL LIBRARY 

In strengthening the cultural and governmental services which 
benefit the entire urban area, but which can only be supported in the 
urban center, the location of a Municipal Library comies into focus. 
The present location of the Municipal Library is of inadequate size 
for future expansion due to the parking facilities required by the new 
Federal Building and topographical conditions within the area. 

It is recommended that the old Post Office be renovated to 
accomodate the library facilities and fine arts exhibits. The archi- 
tectural character and structural system of the building would lend 
themselves to this use. 



120 



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PROPOSED MUNICIPAL LIBRARY 
AND 
DEVELOPMENT PLAN 



XMEXTurxcix: 



However, this is only a recommendation subject to a feasi- 
bility study by a citizens committee. This recommendation is final 
in respect to closing Southeast First Street from Southeast Second 
Avenue to Southeast Second Place. The perspective depicts a surface 
lot that in the future would be improved to the ramp-parking garage. 



Being resolved that future expansion to the existing Municipal 
Library on West University Avenue would not be feasible due to 
inadequate land area, it is recommended that the said building with its 
location on University Avenue in relation to the mall entering to the 
landmark of the new Federal Building, be the new location of the 
Chamber of Commerce. 



121 



COLISEUM AND CIVIC AUDITORIUM 

Making Gainesville a center for conventions, large shows, 
speeches, symphonies, short courses, etc., is d e f i n i t e 1 y needed. 
Being a college town, or "The University City", downtown Gaines- 
ville will remain the retail and governmental center of the region. 
The subject is only brought out here in respect to downtown Gaines- 
ville and the role that such a complex would play within the area. 

It has been found that the fundamental prerequisite of para- 
mount importance for such a complex is housing facilities (hotels and 
motels). These facilities are not located within the downtown area 
nor ever will be. As pointed out in the previous discus sion of the 
Gainesville economy, the principle contributing factor is the Univer- 
sity of Florida and its allied functions. With emphasis being placed 
on education in science, medicine, etc. , facilities will be required 
that will directly effect the Gainesville economy, with the downtown 
area remaining as the retail center 

Connections naade by the Interstate system between urban 
areas, and the fact that Gainesville is geographically the center of the 
state, travel time in the future will play an important role in its 
accessibility on a state-wide basis. 

It should be established here and now, that a civic auditorium 
and convention center, in its physical role, should not be within 
downtown Gainesville. 



122 



goals: 



TO MAKE THE RETAIL CENTER MORE 
COMPACT FOR EASY INTERNAL CIRCU- 
LATION 

TO SEPARATE SERVICE VEHICLES FROM 
REGULAR TRAFFIC AS MUCH AS PRAC- 
TICALLY POSSIBLE 

TO CREATE A SEPARATE PEDESTRIAN 
CIRCULATION PATTERN AND THUS 
GREATLY ENHANCE THE AESTHETIC 
APPEARANCE TO SHOPPERS 

TO IMPROVE RETAIL SALES VOLUMES 
IN THE DOWNTOWN AREA, ABSOLUTELY 
AND RELATIVE TO THE REGION 

TO PROVIDE SUFFICIENT VEHICLE 
PARKING FOR THESE SHOPPERS 



Retail Center 



123 




INTRODUCTION 

The ultimate objective of the redesign of the retail area must 
not only make it an attractive area for shoppers, but also provide 
sufficient varieties and quantities of outlets and uses to make it a 
complete shopping complex, catering to all tastes and incomes. The 
right "combination" or "mix" of stores adds strength to downtown; the 
interchange of customers between units --the shopping function- -is 
only possible if the retail units themselves disperse into a pattern 
that interprets the desires of the customer with facilities to satisfy 
these desires. The strength of downtown is that it has many times 
the number of retail stores and personal services that any shopping 
center can provide. 

The challenge is to redesign an old retail area so that it will 
function as an up-to-date retail shopping center, and in such a way 
that renewal can, in fact, be accomplished. One of the principal 
assets of the retail area of today is its compactness. The approach 
to the circulation pattern was to sustain this feature. This facilitates 
the multi-purpose shopping trip by allowing the shopper to visit all 
the retail stores as a pedestrian. 



124 





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DESIGN 

The retail center in the proposed plan is even more compact, 
although concessions had to be made with the existing street system 
which intersects pedestrian ways at various points. The only com- 
patible solution is the super-block system as the above map indicates . 
The pedestrian ways will unify what was forrrlerly a series of un- 
related blocks and traffic-laden streets into one shopping area. 

Provisions are to be made by fire trucks, and p o 1 i c e cars, 
when this is necessary. Servicing of the stores fronting on the pedes- 
trian malls must, of course, be possible; and to keep the pedestrian 
character of the malls intact, this servicing must take place through 
some other entry other than the front door. However, this cannot be 
done in many areas. Provisions can be made in truck deliveries, 
refuse collection, etc. , at certain hours and incorporate the service 



125 





access into the design of the pedestrian malls and into the design of 
the buildings themselves. Also, retail uses that require consistent 
deliveries, storage, etc., which have service problems at the very- 
outset are usually uses that do not contribute to the strength of down- 
town--food stores, feed stores, etc. 

THE PEDESTRIAN SHOPPING MALL 

A pedestrian shopping mall is often thought to be the solution 
to downtown's retail problems; but by itself, it will not succeed. 
There must be adequate close-in parking and good transit for shop- 
pers; an effective plan for re-routed traffic; and a workable service 
pattern for the stores fronting the mall. Since these involve changes 
in long-established habits, as well as the expenditure of considerable 
sums of money, they can be undertaken only if the pedestrian mall is 
to be a long-term improvement. Besides these practical problems, 
those more abstract in na t u r e--form, color, landscaping, the re- 
lationship of spaces along the pedestrian way- -must also be solved if 
it is to be successful. Only as a permanent feature does a pedestrian 
mall justify the spending of the required amount of time and invest- 
ment to work out all these problems. 



126 



The proposed plan of a circulation pattern dictates the use of 
certain streets as p e d e s t r i a n ways or others to be vacated. By 
adopting the circulation plan, the pedestrian malls will have to be 
permanent. The idea of a temporary experiment for promotional 
purposes has caused comments, generally opposed, from cities on 
the value of experimentation. 



MALL DEVELOPMENT 

A basic question on malls is the legality of closing streets for 
pedestrian use. The answer, of course, depends on state law re- 
garding the closing of streets and ■what constitutes the closing of 
streets. This should be the responsibility of a "Legal Task Force" 
on downtown renewal that should be formed (see Plan Implementa- 
tion). Municipal and private liability for accidents in mall areas 
should be determined, since proposed malls include decorations and 
fixtures not commonly associated with street traffic. Usually the 
abutting property owner is responsible for the condition of the side- 
walk in front of a store, but ■where would his liability end if a mall is 
created? 

A mall program should and will come to the question of finan- 
cial arrangements to be worked out to finance downtown revitaliza- 
tion. A financial policy regarding sharing construction costs between 
the City of Gainesville and representative downtown merchants, to 
arrive at an equitable basis of financing, should be recommended to 
the City Commission. The city has a definite interest in preventing 
deterioration of the downtown area- -personal and real property, 
taxes, cultural and retail center, etc. The merchants and property 
owners in the area also have a responsibility to protect property 
values. There are various procedures that have been followed in 
cities on special assessment formulas. These are only a few ques- 
tions that must be resolved for financing pedestrian malls. 




127 



STORE MODERNIZATION 

If the retail center connected by pedestrian malls is to be the 
magnet to attract shoppers downtown, stores and merchandising 
methods must be modernized to make full use of this opportunity. 
Many of the stores fronting on the proposed mall are old fashioned, 
and the facades above them are blighted and dirty. Store fronts 
should be given a handsome, unified treatment, and the irregular and 
competitive "stickout" signs should be replaced by a row of dignified 
"flat" s igns that can be controlled by ordinances in sign limitations 
within the central business district. 

SUMMARY 

The revitalization of the downtown area is important for any 
city whose commercial foundation is being eroded by competition from 
shopping centers, downtown traffic strangulation, and deterioration 
of downtown properties. The pedestrian mall is but one way of re- 
storing its competitive position. Others include providing sufficient 
close-in parking spaces for shoppers, making the retail core area 
more compact for easy internal circulation, improving merchandise, 
and store modernization. 




128 



goals: 



TO SATISFY A BASIC HUMAN URGE FOR 
BEAUTY THROUGH THE DESIGN OF 
BUILDINGS AND OPEN SPACES AND 
THEIR RELATION TO EACH OTHER 

TO ACHIEVE ORDER AND VISUAL 
IDENTITY IN THE CITY, WHERE THERE 
IS CHAOS AND SPRAWL TODAY 

TO PROVIDE A HIERARCHY OF SCALE, 
A VARIETY OF MASSES AND COLORS, 
AND A CONTRAST OF TEXTURES AND 
SURFACES TO CREATE A PLEASANT 
ENVIRONMENT 



} 
I 

II 
IJ 

'I • TO ILLUSTRATE THAT GOOD DESIGN OF 

AND CAREFUL ATTENTION TO SIGNS, 
II LIGHTING, PAVING, STREET FURNITURE, 

' AND LANDSCAPING IS ESSENTIAL 

II 

II Design in the City 



129 



INTRODUCTION 

Our present cities are a complicated place filled with con- 
flicting noises, sights, and smells. It is also packed with automobiles 
and trucks, hopelessly intermingled with pedestrians, all rushing 
about on numerous matters of business and pleasure. Most of us have 
lived with the resulting chaos, have become accustomed to it, and 
think it is quite normal. Yet, when we compare it to the order and 
efficiency that characterize most of the banking, commercial, and 
other business organizations that make up our city, the confusion in 
the streets seems an abnormal waste of time and effort. 

It is the various orderly business institutions which are par- 
tially responsible for the disorder of their concern, for "perfection 
stops" at their door. Each private building, with all of its "para- 
phernalia", has been considered as a separate element, the design 
being strictly private enterprise. Very seldom will one see consid- 
eration that has been given to the position of this individual building 
in the over-all interrelationship of forms that is the "cityscape"; or 
has much thought been given to the non-building elements - -the open 
spaces, the trees, and lighting standards - -which surround and give 
value and significance to structures. 

Granted, aesthetics is an intangible asset of a community; 
however, a city is attractive, or it is not. A building may be tall and 
display its expense for everyone to see, but it may not be attractive. 
A street has order, calm, or even "class"; or it does not. One could 
possibly say that the tragedy of an affluent society is that there is no 
axiom that reads, "The more money spent, the more beauty created. " 
So, frequently it is often just the reverse. 



A PATH OF DIRECTION 

If we are to realize the potential of our economy and create a 
community of beauty, there must be a concerted effort in redevelop- 
ment with the relationship of one building to another, and to the 
natural and man-made environnnent. In the course of daily activities 
the shoppe-r or employee comes in contact with many varied aspects 
of the downtown area. Questions arising are: How does he arrive 
and depart? How does he move about within the downtown area? 
What are his activities, and how does he behave? Only by answers 
to these questions and others can the dominant patterns of people's 
behavior reflect patterns that form an environment of considered re- 
lationships which is "design". 



130 



To fully utilize and enjoy the downtown area, the individual 
must have some concept of its over-all form. Yet it is natural for 
people to perceive only isolated bits and pieces of the "cityscape" at 
any one time. We see a corner display window, a church steeple, a 
bank sign with time and .temperature, etc. These are familiar land- 
marks which we use to create for ourselves an orderly image of the 
downtown area. And it is these physical features that orient the indi- 
vidual from one point to another as the form of the city begins to un- 
fold. 

It can unfold meaningfully only if it is reinforced by a coherent 
system of streets, walkways, buildings, of open and closed spaces 
arranged in a proper sequence to create a visual framework. Thus 
as we walk or drive through the city, its form should slowly become 
discernible and understandable. 

The visual identity within the downtown area will be formed 
around the pedestrian malls. For example, an individual driving 
south on Northeast First Street will have a direct approach looking 
south along the pedestrian mall which terminates in front of the 
Municipal Library. 

URBAN DESIGN ELEMENTS 

There can be no doubt that the downtown area will be unable 
to achieve real beauty and harmony unless the architecture is char- 
acterized by a consistent quality. It is emphasized that store 
modernization should be the first step. Yet there is one aspect of 
this "architecture" that rarely receives adequate attention: the 
architecture of the street and its furnishings. This is particularly 
true because the greatest attraction of the city is the ground floor. 

Integral parts of the ground floor are the important accessory 
elements: trees, paving, benches, refuse receptacles, lighting 
standards, and signs. It is essential that care be taken in the design 
of these details for it is precisely these elements which give texture, 
color, and scale to the eye-level world of the pedestrian. 

To achieve these extensive goals there must be affected two 
coordinated programs of action which involve both public and private 
interests. The main objectives of this program are listed in outline 
form on the following page. 



131 



The PUBLIC PROGRAM must include the following broad 
elements of urban improvement: 

1. Landscaping 

2. Street furnishings 

3. Lighting 

4. Sign and billboard legislation 

5. Promotion of art works for public places. 

The PRIVATE PROGRAM should be guided by a 
committee which would stimulate and guide the continued improve- 
ment of private buildings and properties within the downtown area. 
Most important of these features are: 

1. Modernization of store fronts 

2. General building improvements 

3. Private landscaping. 

The above outline of projects illustrate the need for a care- 
fully thought-out and professionally executed program of landscape 
improvement. The "furnishings" of the city must not be left to 
chance. There must be a highly coordinated program of public and 
private effort if downtown Gainesville is changed from ugliness and 
decay and made once again a place of beauty. 

Looking at the "cityscape", at people on the street, or at any 
single object, as the visual field has no boundarie s, one can only 
make a spatial interpretation of the things he sees --their location, 
extension, appearance, etc. In other words, the entire retail core 
area of downtown Gainesville must be revitalized in its appearance. 



132 



Plan Implementation 



INTRODUCTION 

The i^ltimate test of the proposals in this volume is the extent 
to which the revitalization of downtown Gainesville is' carried out. 
The most brilliant plan, if not carried out, has only academic value. 
After thorough explanation and examination, agreement concerning 
the basic skeleton of the plan must be met. To be specific, the pro- 
posed street pattern nraust be accepted. Details and amenities will 
and should be added. These details are no less important, especially 
from view of public acceptance. 

As previously mentioned, this volume is a complete departure 
from traditional concepts in that the public is not called in until the 
"pains of labor" of a project have been left behind, and usual touches 
of glamour have been added. 

The purpose and scope of this volume is to initiate other min- 
imum essential environments for downtown renewal. This report is 
a stimulant for the environment of action among the following: 

1. One or several leaders capable of undertaking 
major action themselves, and able to convince 
others to follow their example. These leaders 
are generally in finance, insurance, and gov- 
ernment. 

2. Powerholders - -not necessarily providing the 
top leadership- -who are willing to support the 
plans of the leading group. 

3. General business, civic, and welfare groups 
willing and able to publicize and support the 
plans of planners and top-level leadership. 

4. An electorate with confidence in top renewal 
leadership to support candidates and improve- 
ment programs. 

It is believed that the aspects of downtown renewal have re- 
ceived careful attention required to made them a serious basis for 
discussion. Cost estimates have not been included for they would 
have been hypothetical figures for the "typical" city. The plan is so 
interrelated that estimated expenditures cannot be attained without 
final indorsement of another phase. 

Effective implementation requires unified government, busi- 
ness and civic action in every case, whether one thinks of the pedes- 
trian mall or of the precise contributions which must be made by each 



135 



participating group, taking the financial and legal aspects of each 
part of the total plan into account. The roles of the city administra- 
tion, investors, realtors, and businessmen are usually not inter- 
changeable; each project can be fully successful only if every aspect 
of it is carried out by the appropriate group. 

There is always the danger that short-sighted, timid action 
will produce only parts of the plan, and thereby sacrifice what is 
perhaps its greatest value, coordinated change. To be sure, "half- 
a-loaf" is indeed better than none, and limited redevelopment would 
unquestionably be welcome. This point is that a plan is not com- 
pletely comprehensible through its parts, however sound each part 
may be. Some parts of the proposed plan may be examined for their 
individual merits, but the plan as a whole contains such unifying ele- 
ments as the revamped traffic and pedestrian circulation systems 
which are not divisible. There will, hopefully, be much discussion 
of these proposals, but the essential unity of the total design must be 
kept in mind, lest half the battles be won, but the war to rebuild 
the downtown area lost. This places a special obligation on the 
governmental and private agencies involved, to take extreme care 
not to undermine the over-all structure of the plan by expedient or 
politically-motivated decisions taken in the name of "practicality". 
The redevelopment must, to be sure, proceed in phases, but it must 
be emphasized that only the fulfillment of the entire plan will consti- 
tute true renewal. 

The final and most important phase of this planning project 
will come after this report. The value of the plans offered will be 
listed in the amount of rapid, coordinated, and effective change that 
takes place in the face and heart of downtown Gainesville in leader- 
ship, citizen participation, and in the environment for renewal action. 
When these environments have evolved to a point for "action", a de- 
tail plan for downtown renewal will be developed by the planning 
agency for plan implementation. 

IMPLEMENTATION 

The success of that implementation will depend on four 
factors, all of which are indispensable to the redevelopment process: 



(A) Leadership 

(B) Financing 
CO Legislation 
(D) Publicity 




Downtown Renewal 



136 



TBfix^sam 



The "perspective" of this report can best be summarized 
under the headings of "Public Support", "Planning", and "Develop- 
ment". 

PUBLIC SUPPORT 

« 
Gainesville should recognize the need for support from down- 
town merchants and 1 a n d o w n e r s, the public at large, and the city- 
government. 

1. Leadership. Both business and. governmental 
leadership is needed in all phases of downto^wn 
renewal. 

2. Downtown Backing . The downtown community 
must support the central business district re- 
vitalization both with money and other re- 
sources. Success will be most promising when 
an organization for downtown renewal is formed 
to present unified interests. Even a few dis- 
senters can present a major barrier to action, 

3. Opposition. Opposing interests should be re- 
cognized. Absentee owners of stores are likely 
to be indifferent as they might feel they are al- 
ready getting an adequate return on their pro- 
perty investment. Merchants located near but 
off the mall will be opposed. Truckers will re- 
sist restrictions on delivering hours of limita- 
tions on access to stores. 

4. Sustained Interest. Downtown revitalization 

will not be achieved overnight, and this interest 
must be sustained. The City of Gainesville and 
downtown interests should work together in 
issuing progress reports and other news to re- 
tain public interest and support. 

PLANNING- 

The City of Gainesville must recognize the importance of 
planning for downtown Gainesville in relation to community planning 
and economic development. 



137 



1. Basic Planning. The pedestrian mall, street 
pattern, and other phases of downtown revita- 
lization should be studied in relation to a com- 
prehensive plan for the community. The re- 
tail core area must be relatively homogeneous 
so that stores cater to relatively leisurely 
shopping. Quick-stop stores (drugstores, 
newsstands, etc.) may lose business in the mall 
areas. 

2. Economic Analysis. Economic base studies in 
retail sales volunnes, etc. , and the role down- 
town plays must be initiated to forecast the po- 
tential for commercial development. 

3. Traffic and Parking. The p r o p o s e d plan in- 
cludes many changes in traffic parking design 
that must be incorporated as an integral unit. 

4. Urban Renewal. The downtown Gainesville plan 
should be integrated with urban renewal plan- 
ning that is included within the study area. 



DEVELOPMENT 

Municipal and private interests should begin to work on legal 
consideration, financing, and actual physical development within 
downtown Gainesville. 

1. Stage Development. Downtown revitalization 
is too expensive and time consuming to be ac- 
complished in a few weeks or months. The 
pedestrian mall may be a good starting point 
which means that the proposed circulation pat- 
tern must be accepted. The total program 
should consider qu a n t i t i e s, scheduling, and 
means of financing for urban renewal, streets, 
public buildings, parking garages, underground 
utility systems, etc. 

2. Legal Questions . Street closings, municipal 
tort liability, and other legal questions should 
be anticipated and resolved. 



138 



3. Financing. City financial participation nriust be 
considered carefully. The cost to the city 
should be compared, with the tax return from 
possible appreciated property values. Intang- 
ible benefits should be considered as the amen- 
ities of a pleasant downtown area, etc. 

4. Municipal Services. The City of Gainesville 
should continue to exercise its normal re- 
sponsibilities to encourage downtown stability. 
This includes good administration and enforce- 
ment of building codes, traffic enforcement, 
refuse collection, street cleaning, street 
lighting, and other improvements. 



CONCLUSION 

The goal of this volume is to initiate the minimum essential 
environments for the revitalization of downtown Gainesville. If down- 
town Gainesville could first know where it is, and whether or not it is 
taking care of itself, it could better judge what to do and how to do it. 
It is hoped that the information contained herein is a prelude to its 
redevelopment. 




139 



/fjaan^ 



or / 



Plan >- 
Docs •• 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Appreciation and thanks are extended to 
those who have contributed to the development of 
this study, and particularly to Donald O. Morgan, 
Director of the Planning Department; Kenneth C. 
Wilson and Jim D. Adamson, Draftsmen of the 
Planning Department; and the secretarial staff of 
the City Manager's Office.